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Post Info TOPIC: Assignment #21: The Great Depression Project
mre

Date:
Assignment #21: The Great Depression Project


The depression that began with the Stock Market Crash in 1929 shaped a generation. Many would struggle to find work, food and shelter. Still more would hope that FDR would show them the way to a brighter future. Hundreds of thousands would be choked by dust storms bigger than anything ever seen before or since. Others would leave their families, riding the rails, hoping to send money home someday. These Americans would fight against hardship and Hitler. They would rebuild the United States into the most powerful nation on the planet. They would give birth to the Sixties generation. They not only shaped a generation; they shaped the American century. Here is their story

Note: This is a long assignment, expected to be completed over a period of days. Each assignment is worth 100 points [300 points total].

Part I:


Text Analysis:
Describe 10 Facts & Research a Topic [Read, Describe, Choose, Research, Post & Respond] Students will 1) read Chapter 24 in The American People (The Great Depression and the New Deal, Part One and Part Two) and AMSCO: Chapter 24: The Great Depression and then 2) describe ten facts (or statistics, events, individuals, issues, etc.) that represent some of the main ideas of your reading. Students will then 3) chooseone topicfrom their reading to research. This topic may reflect any of the issues, events or individuals related to the political, economic or cultural aspects to the Great Depression or FDRs New Deal. Students will then 4) use the Internet to research their topic and then 5) post a descriptive essay concerning their findings (primary sources are encouraged and all sources must be cited). Finally, students will be asked to 6) respond to another students post by explaining what you learned either a) from their essay or b) from their sources concerning their topic.

Your 10 facts and research topic will be worth 40 pointseach [80 total] and your question/comment will be worth 10 points. Finally, your detailed response to a students post will be worth 10 points.


Part II:


Cast:
Lewis Andreas | Dorothe Bernstein | Sam Heller | Jerome Zerbe | Robin Langston | Louis Banks | Emma Tiller | Buddy Blankenship | Jim Sheridan | Eileen Barth | Bob Stinson | Evelyn Finn | Dorothy Day | Max Naiman | Oscar Helein | Cesar Chaves | Doc Graham | Peggy Terry | Mike Widman | Arthur Robertson | John Beecher| Jane Yoder | Aaron Barkham | Earl Dickinson | Ed Paulsen | Vincent Murray | Larry Van Dusen

People:
Write a brief (1 page) biography based on your interviews and your understanding of the personal experiences of your character. You may use artistic license to add information as long as you dont change the historical context of your character or the events/issues of the times. [Example: I am a 25 year old woman living in western Oklahoma whose husband left the farm two months ago in search of work. The dust blows so hard at night that we have to cover our windows with wet towels] [20 points]

Events
: Describe the historical events that have influenced your life during the Great Depression. You may write a description in paragraphs or compile a list explaining the connections to your personal experiences. Connections may be direct (personally experienced) or indirect (affecting the scenario around you). [Example: When the Federal Farm Board was established, we thought we could continue to grow more food to pay our mortgage, but no one was buying. Prices plummeted. We overproduced and were left with rotting crops. Things even got worse when the Farmers Holiday Association tried to sabotage our food from going to market] [20 points]

Issues
: How have any of these issues below affected you? What is their relationship to the events you are connected to? Explain in detail by analyzing the relationship between your experiences, historic events and these issues. Choose a minimum of four of the issues listed here. Justice | Patriotism | Racism | Politics | Economic Power | Rights | Prejudice | Gender | Equality [Example: Hoover seems to want to protect the large farmer-owners and not the small ones. (Economic Power) Doesnt everyone deserve to be protected from poverty in this country? (Equality)][20 points]

Story:
Randomly select groups. Introduce yourselves and then create a story involving yourself and two others. You may decide to either write a short story (4-5 pages) or outline a skit and then act it out in the class (10 minutes). The objective of the story is to describe and explain the political, economic and social impact of the Great Depression through your collective experiences, but remember to have fun creating and/or acting out your story as well!] as well as adding feedback to each other's stories for accuracy and context. [40 points]

Part III:


Dear Mrs. Roosevelt Letters from Children of the Great Depression
Source: http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/index.htm, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eleanor/
Assignment: Imagine yourself as Eleanor Roosevelt. Youve toured most of the country, visiting injured factory workers, climbing down mine shafts, ate dinner with dispossessed sharecroppers and listened to countless stories of unemployed and homeless Americans. You return to the White House late at night from another trip abroad to a small mountain of letters. You notice they are all from children. You begin to imagine the Depression through their eyes as you read their letters Choosing three of the letters available on the website, write a response for each in detail both to the child and to the parent explaining your efforts & feelings. [50 points]

Photo Essay of the Great Depression
Source: http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/depression/photoessay.htm
Assignment: Imagine yourself a photographer during the Depression. Youve been given a position working for the government documenting the effects of the economic crisis. Your supervisor visits you one day completely disheveled and speaks to you in a hurry. You have been asked to bring your photos to the President himself. He wishes to know more about your work and how it may help him create policies to help the nation. You have to select ten of your best photos and explain why they are symbolic of the times. Visit the website and choose ten images. Explain what message each image tells and why it is important to remember. [50 points]

__________________
Erin

Date:

I call nosies on:Sam Heller, Emma Tiller, and Evelyn Finn

__________________
Breanne

Date:

I choose Dorothy Day, Jane Yoder,and Earl Dickinson.

__________________
Joanna picks

Date:

Larry Van Dusen

Doc Graham

Vincent Murrary



__________________
Anna

Date:

i pick...
cesar chaves
john beecher
robin langston

__________________
Insanus Steliga Ferox

Date:

I pick these things, lol:

Louis Banks

Max Naiman

Ed Paulsen

I Win!

__________________
ashley

Date:

i pick
louis andreas
jerome zerbe
and eileen barth

__________________
ashley

Date:

Ashley Baldo

2.08

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was the most active first lady that had yet been brought into the eyes of history. Though her personal relationship with Franklin was strained, they did have a mutual, respectful, and political relationship. Roosevelt himself was not able to travel the country because of his disability, so Eleanor did much of the touring and meeting the people in the country. She was the one who most often would push her husband to help those that she met, like the minorities and the less fortunate people that had nowhere to turn. After all she has been quoted to say, I could not at any age be content to take my place in a corner by the fireside and simply look on.

During her twelve years as first lady she kept up a heavy travel schedule. She would often appear at labor meetings to assure members that the White House did notice their efforts and their problems. Also at this time she wrote a newspaper column called My Day, through which she would talk to Americans, and also, like her husband, she would appear on the radio occasionally to speak to everyone in the country.

Mrs. Roosevelt was mindful of minorities as well. She worked hard especially for the rights of African Americans when she came to the white house in 1933. Roosevelt first became incensed by segregation when she tried to get the Subsistence Homestead Administration to allow African Americans to enter a settlement town for impoverished people called Arthurdale. When they refused she called the head of the NAACP, Walter White to help her. She also got people to investigate the differences in the wages for African Americans versus whites in the south. She also asked the Navy secretary why blacks were assigned strictly to mess hall duties. She pushed for segregation with equal opportunities, with certain attention to African American schools. She was quoted as saying, "wherever the standard of education is low, the standard of living is low." She was also supportive of the segregated pilots of the Tuskegee Airmen, even riding in a plane with one of the pilots. The head of the school there credited her approval of the school with its success. And, although it is not a minority, she helped women to improve their lives. Most publicly and notably was the fact that she only allowed women reporters to report on her, which would oftentimes require a newspaper to hire a woman reporter.

After the end of her husbands terms in office she was still active in politics and national affairs. In 1946 she was appointed to the United Nationals General Assembly. She played an instrumental role in drafting the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which she can be seen holding in one of the posters in class). She also served as the first chairperson of the UN Human Rights Commission. She spoke on behalf of the Commission and the Declaration to the UN General Assembly. Then on 12.10.1948 the Declaration was adopted unanimously by the General Assembly except for 8 absentees. Mrs. Roosevelt resigned from her post in 1952. She died ten years later in 1962 following illnesses and complications from being struck by a vehicle.



__________________
Insanus Steliga Ferox

Date:

Bonus Army

In the summer of 1932, before the election later in the year, out of desperation, many WWI veterans marched to Washington, D.C. to demand their veteran bonuses as they, like many other people, lost their jobs. Although their bonuses were not due until 1945 they felt they should get it early so they could survive and thus one thousand of them initially marched on Washington even after a bill was passed that would allow them to borrow 50% of what they were owed and were eventually joined by other veterans totaling 17,000 of them living in shantytowns, which was named Bonus City. The aforementioned bill was later defeated and in mid-June of 1932 many of the thousands of veterans lefts disheartened but several thousand remained determined to get what they came for. President Hoover refused to talk with their leaders for he thought that the subversive elements of communism and anarchy influenced them greatly and after a clash with police, resulting in two of the marchers death, ordered for them to be driven away and for the destruction of shantytown. This act created an image of a cold and heartless president for himself as many people related with the unemployed veterans.

FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration)

When FDR was elected president he called the congress together for an unprecedented Hundred Days session to begin working on and implementing his New Deal. One of the programs that came out if this was FERA, in 1933, and it was to provide emergency relief as many people were practically on the verge of death and starvation. It granted 500 million dollars to cities and states to fund their programs for relief such as soup kitchens to help the jobless and the homeless. Harry Hopkins, a very close friend and adviser to the president, was the director of this program and also became director to the CWA a few months later.

WPA (Works Progress Administration)

The WPA was passed and authorized in 1935 as part of the Second New Deal with the intent to deal with unemployment on a massive scale and with the demoralization is created. Between the years of 1935 and 1940 the program spent billions of dollars hiring unemployed people to give them jobs and although only one member of a family could qualify and it was usually a man who was picked, eventually 13% of the WPA was made up of women. All of the money being spent went to hiring people to build buildings, paint murals, write plays and histories, and to keep youth in schools by giving them part-time jobs. From this was created nearly 6,000 schools, 2,500 hospitals, and 13,000 playgrounds.

Dust Bowl

Along with the Great Depression came more trouble for the already down-trodden farmers who never fully shared the wealth of the 20s. The Dust Bowl was one of the worst ecological disasters in American history as the Great Plains were basically destroyed by years poor farming practices and in the 30s by constant drought and dust-storms. Many people left this area, many being called Okies as they were from Oklahoma, and headed for California to start again. Over 10,000 homes were abandoned because of the Dust Bowl and millions of pounds of top soil were swept away by the wind to create many problems wherever it landed and covered. This particular event inspired John Steinbeck to write his novel The Grapes of Wrath which tells the story of a family similar to those who lived on farms in the Great Plains.

Fair Labor Standards Act

The last significant thing to come out of the New Deal and the final victory for organized labor was the FLS Act passed in June of 1938. This act created standards which businesses had to follow and abide by such as: a minimum wage of 40 cents per hour, maximum work week of 40 hours and anything over that will be overtime, and a restriction of child labor for child under 16. While only effecting 20 percent of the labor force and only 14 percent of working women it made a great change as it did not distinguish between male or female and thus ending the need for special legislation for women.

The Scottsboro Case

Blacks continued to be persecuted and discriminated against even in the 30s. One case that symbolized their situation was that of the Scottsboro case, where nine black men and two white women were hitching a free ride in a boxcar and the women accused the men of raping them. A jury of white men had found them guilty and sentenced them to death but the Supreme Court stepped in, in 1933, to make sure they had a fair trial. The case went on despite the lack of evidence and even when one woman recanted her position because of pressure to protect a white womens honor. Five of the black men went to jail for a long term imprisonment but were later paroled in 1946 but one of them escaped anyway and the other four black men had the charges against them dropped.

United Auto Workers Strike & General Motors

In the 30s as workers fought for better working conditions and benefits a new technique for striking was developed, the sit-in. One major case of this tactic being used was with General Motors in Flint, Michigan and Atlanta, Georgia. Here the strike worked when the workers went into work but did not work and waited out the president of GM and the Governor of Michigan until they accepted their demands by recognizing their United Auto Workers union but the organizers were beaten and driven away.

Cinema (aka the Silver Screen)

Movies were a major event for most families in the 20s and 30s and even more so in the 30s with the introduction of voice to film. Despite a slump during the beginning of the Depression movie-going was commonplace activity as it was, to most people, almost important as food. It provided people with a way to escape reality and hardship for a couple of hours and to experience a fantasy world. Many people idolized the actors and tried to emulate them and even Mickey Mouse, the cartoon character, became more popular and recognized than live human actors.

Supreme Court Controversy

As President Roosevelt was having a hard time getting support for his programs and unable to appoint any justices to the Supreme Court in his first term he decided, after he was elected to a second term, to force more justices into the Supreme Court with a so called Court-packing bill. This was met with a whole lot of resistance from both parties as they were outraged because it was seen as a way for him to gain more power than he was suppose to have and thus upset the checks and balances system. For the first time in his presidency a major bill of his was defeated by Congress and his action was seen as the most unpopular action of his presidential career. He did however win as the Supreme court slowly changed their resistance policy and began supporting his ideas again when they upheld his National Labor Relations Act.

Electricity

In the 20s focus had been on the bathroom but in the 30s the focus was on the kitchen and electric appliances. Refrigerators now were selling more so than the iceboxes and the washing-machine and electric iron revolutionized washing and ironing day for women around the country. Despite these machines making work easier they did not decrease the work load, just more convenient. Many people also now had lighting instead of candles or oil.



__________________
Insanus Steliga Ferox

Date:

PART III

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/jb1137.htm

Greetings, J.B., and thank you for writing to me, for I love to hear from all the people of this nation and to be of any help I can be to them. I am very sorry for your troubles and can relate to you honestly when I say this as I have seen many like you, that is, in the same situation. I am very sorry to hear about your situation and would like to reassure you that I do not think it is your fault for your situation nor anybody of your familys fault and I would like to wish you the very best Christmas. I regret and am deeply sorry that I cannot help you personally as I have many thousands of letters from all over the country coming to me from children like yourself and do not have nearly enough time as I would like to read each and every one of them and to respond. Despite my own inability in not being able to do as much as I would like to let you know that I have not forgotten the country as a whole and have been working none stop for it. I have toured all around the country spending time with people such as you and these tours have only ever strengthened my effort to push for the growing support of beneficial programs to yourself. The NYA, the National Youth Administration, and the WPA, the Works Progress Administration, with its youth programs are just two of the programs I have been supporting and working for to better the country and to get it back on its feet by working with you, the kids, to provide you with someway to help in what ways you can and to help you by providing recreation, food, and care. Again I am sorry for not being able to help you personally but I wish and hope that this letter does mean something to you and that it inspires you.

Sincerely and lovingly,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/ck0334.htm

Hello, C.K., I really appreciate hearing from the you as a youth of this nation and reading about your own personal life and getting to know you better, although it does sadden me sometimes as I know I cannot possibly help everyone as I would like to. Also please do not feel awkward about asking for things, especially when you need them, for at least you tried. I wish I could devote more time to dealing with all the situations described in the many hundreds of letters I receive but to do that, I am unable. However, I have been touring this great but troubled nation of ours and have seen many people in similar situations such as you and have been pushing for the support of the government behind two new programs that will greatly, I have been touring this great but troubled nation of ours and have seen many people in similar situations such as you (and you are no less important as them) and have been pushing for the support of the government behind two new programs that will greatly help youth such as yourself. These programs will provide the support you need to get yourselves back on track by supporting your parents through jobs that will be created and you will also receive support from the government to help accommodate your living. I wish you best of luck in school and am glad to see you working hard and hopefully I can hear again from you one day when times are better.

Sincerely and with best wishes,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/ma0134.htm

Hello, Mason A., I am truly touched by your story and deeply regret not being able to help you on a more personal basis and would hope that you understand. I especially can relate with you as I too lost my father when I was a small girl and missed him terribly. I can also understand you position as I have traveled about the country, to and fro, and seen many kids just like you, needing and wanting help and am discouraged that I cannot meet every one of you. It is very hard for me to write this knowing that all you will receive from me personally is this but I wish that you see some meaning in my reply and hold hope for the future. However, I have plans based on what Ive seen and have been pushing the government towards support of the Presidents new deal programs. In your case I have been pushing for the programs the NYA, the National Youth Administration, and the WPA, the Works Progress Administration, which has its own specific youth programs. These, I believe with my full support and heart, will work to your benefit and to many others like you and can only do good for you and your family. These programs with provide you with support to allow you to stay in school and to take care of you, and for those of your family who are old enough, will provide them with jobs. Again I am sorry I cannot do more for you on a personal level but I extend my deepest condolences and wish you peace of mind.

With love and concern,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt



__________________
Insanus Steliga Ferox

Date:

PART III

dustbowl.jpg

This image shows the destruction and trouble caused by the Dust Bowl and a Farmer and his sons weathering it. This image more importantly shows the consequences of bad farming practices and neglect of the land over a period of many unregulated years. It also tells the plight of many of the farmers of the Great Plains in the 1930s as their livelihoods had been decimated. It is important to remember because it is important to take care of the land that you work especially for farmers and that in times like these farmers get hit the hardest and thus need support.

votecomm.jpg

This image shows a support and recruit poster of the communist party inside the U.S. The message it is trying to get across is that the oppressed and downtrodden people of America need to vote communist as they support their cause and are the true voice of the people. Also, since its membership had increased by three times in the 30s this picture shows how bad the situation had got in the U.S. to the point where people began to lose faith in the government above them and wanted drastic change for drastic times. It is important to remember because it shows that if a countrys own government cannot or will not help its own people then other groups will step in and try to take charge.

migrantmother.jpg

This picture shows the state many people were in during the depression where people had basically lost everything, even family members. It shows how people had to live destitute and impoverished lives as they lost their jobs and had to give everything up just for food and how they had to move from place to place just to try and find help. The important thing to remember here is that people always need help and that someone would be willing to step in to help, especially on a national level such as this.

train.jpg

This picture shows just two of the millions of people and farmers living on the Great Plains who just left their homes and migrated elsewhere, mainly California and neighboring states. It shows how people just gave up due to the horrible condition of their properties and took what they had that was useful with them. The important message here is that the government should be prepared for national crises and should help people restore their property to prevent mass migration.

camp2.jpg

This picture shows how the people who lost their jobs and most of their land had to live. They lived, or maybe even wasted away, on pieces of land that looked like dumps and looked completely unsanitary. They basically had to scrape the bottom of the barrel to find a semi-suitable place to live and survive. The message or lesson that should be remembered is that temporary homes should be set up for people to live in until they can get back on their feet.

xmastree.jpg

This picture shows how many people became unemployed during the depression and had to live with each other in shacks around in basically all the major cities in the U.S.These people here cant even celebrate a decent Christmas with their poor excuse for a Christmas tree. From this we should remember that people cant eat or live well if they dont have jobs to make money and a crisis like this should be avoided at almost any cost.

relifline.jpg

This image shows how the depression affected everyone no matter your race. Here we see women and men, white and latino, standing here in this relief line for commodities as the depression took a lot, if not everything, from many people and caused them to need the government support desperately. The thing to be remembered here is that no one is safe from a nation-wide problem like this and that everybody lost during the great depression and in turn most needed to call on the government for help.

mission.jpg

Here we see two boys waiting to be given soup for their families by a city service, and for many millions like themselves this was the only food they would be able to get. The message this picture is trying to convey is that people were going hungry and got whatever they could so as not to starve to death. What should be remembered from this is that in a time of depression there will be many needy people who, for no fault of their own, will be unable to sufficiently support themselves and will need intervention.

famr.jpg

Here we see a lone farm house on many acres of farmed land. This is the result of power farming or farming done by machines and businesses in which they take away a lot of jobs for increased profit. This did not help the farmers situation at all as they had to migrate elsewhere to find factory jobs which were few if any. The message to remembered from this is that while power farming can be good as it increases efficiency and the number of produce produced it takes away many jobs and those jobs should be created elsewhere to balance things out.

fisher.jpg

While the Great Depression did hit many people hard it did not take away the majority of the jobs but more so the quality and pay of the jobs. Here we see workers using a new strike tactic called a sit-in in which they go to work but do not do work and force the plant to not produce or manufacture anything. At this time many workers were fighting to get their unions recognized so that in the future they could legally and efficiently bargain for better benefits and pay. The lesson to be remembered here is that workers have a right to work in a safe place and to be paid according to the economy so they can keep up with riding prices.



__________________
Breanne

Date:

1/2 of Part 1

CCC
(Civilian Conservation Corps)
A group of nearly three million young men of the ages of 17 and older. The worked for the government in conservation projects between the year 1933 and 1942. The workers were paid $25 a month, which was given to their families, and $5 for themselves to spend. They helped the environment and planted trees in more than 2 million acres of land. The CCC worked on improving public parks and even Civil War sites. They operated like the military. A historian has called the CCC the "greatest peacetime mobilization in US history."



President Hoover
When the stock market crashed the President needed to find a way to deal with the country's new failing economy. He acted agressively towards the problem. Mainly, he used the power of the federal government and it wasn't called a depression until after its first year. Very often, Hoover called meetings with businessmen and labor leaders. He created the National Credit Corporation and the Emergency Committee for Employment. He was seeking voluntary help as a solution to the country's problem. Another action Hoover took was supporting a tax cut which was passed by Congress in December of 1929.



The Bonus Army

During the Great Depression, many WWI veterans lost their jobs. They weren't receiving their payments for being veterans either. Congress passed a bill in 1931 that would allow them to borrow 50% of the bonuses they were owed, but they still wanted and needed more. In May of 1932, 17000 of these veterans went to Washington and created a shantytown called Bonus City. It was located right outside the capital city. General Douglas MacArthur commanded the army to remove all of these veterans, so they did so with tear gas, guns and tanks, and two of the marchers were killed. Although they were not attacking anyone, these peoples' lives were still lost.



President Roosevelt

President Roosevelt was elected in the year of 1932. He was the former govenor of New York nominated for presidency by the Democrats. He was described as being a healthy and righteous man. During his campaign for presidency he promised the country a New Deal that he hoped would help them. His first problem to solve, once he was in office, was the bank crisis. Many loans were given from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to reopen some banks. Over the next few years of Roosevelt's presidency, many bills were passed to aid the country, such as the Banking Act of 1933 which set up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.


Tennessee Valley Authority
Because of his hopes for conservation, Roosevelt set up the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). It was an organization that would help flood-control projects, and add millions of acres to the country's forests, and wildlife regfuges. For many residents of the Tennessee River Valley it meant cheaper electricity and introduced radios, irons, and washing machines. It helped create jobs for thousands and also built dams.


Works Progress Administration
(WPA)
This administration was set up by Congress in April of 1935. It was set up to help reduce the unemploment rates of the country and was part of the Second New Deal. It employed more than 3 million people a year. These people worked on social projects, but earned lower wagess that private industries would pay. These people built bridges, airports, roads, libraries, and golf courses. They funded writers, artists, and musicians in addition to providing jobs.


Social Security
The Social Security Act was passed in 1935. Since after the Progressive period, reformers had wanted a nation system of health insurance, and old age pensions, and the country was finally going to try to do something about that. During Roosevelt's presidency the number of people over the age of 65 increased from about 6 million to almost 8 million. This act was a compromise however, because Congress had not wanted a federal health insurance plan. Once passed, the benefits ranged from $10-$85 a month. It also provided some aid to children who were dependent.


The Dust Bowl
During the 1930s, record heat temperatures and minimum rainfall turned areas between Oklahoma and Kansas into a dust bowl. A storm in May of 1934 destroyed and removed tons of soil and between the yearas of 1932 and 1939, more than 50 storms occured. Dust covered almost everthing in the home. By the year 1940, 10000 farm homes had been abandoned and there were 9 million acres of destroyed farmland. Almost half a million people left Oklahoma in search of California. The Roosevelt administration tried to deal with the problem.


The National Labor Relations Act
This act was passed in 1935. It outlawed blacklisting and reasserted labor unions' rights to organize collectively. It also established a Labor Relations Board. The president supported this act. It didn't require workers to join these unions but it made them regulated by the federal government.

The Committee of Industrial Organization
(CIO)
This committee was formed by new progressive labor leaders within the AFL. It organized everyone into an industry-wide union. It was comparable to the Knights of Labor, set up in the 1880s. They used aggressive tactics.


I'm going to research the DustBowl.



__________________
Breanne

Date:

Part 1 (Continued)

The Dust Bowl

The Dust Bowl was caused by several dust storms that occured between the years of 1930 and 1940. More than 50 storms devastate areas between the Oklahoma panhandle and Kansas. After these storms, more than 500,000 people would be left homeless. Many occupants of the dust bowl states would perish due to dust pneumonia and malnutrition. It was the ecological cause of the Great Depression. Many of these Americans would migrate to California in search of a new and better life.
One of the worst known storms of the dust bowl occured on May 11, 1934. It removed tons of topsoil from the Great Plains. Chicago was affected by this dust storm as weel, when dust clouds blew all the way there. Days later, the effects reached New York City and Boston.
The Dust Bowl caused the largest migration in history. By the end of the storms in 1940, more than 2.5 million people had left the affected states. The experiences of the people who had migrated were illustrated fictionally in "The Grapes of Wrath." One account of how some people felt is given in Chapter 25 of the book, "Men who have created new fruits in the world cannot create a system whereby their fruits may be eaten. And the failure hangs over the State like a great sorrow . . . . [A]nd in the eyes of the people there is the failure; and in the eyes of the hungry there is a growing wrath. In the souls of the people the grapes of wrath are filling and growing heavy, growing heavy for the vintage."
More than 200000 of the almost 3 million people who had left their land ventured to California. Once there, fear was very much in their hearts, as illustrated by this passage from "The Grapes of Wrath", "Here is the node, you who hate change and fear revolution. Keep those two squatting men apart; make them hate, fear, suspect each other. Here is the anlage of the thing you fear. This is the zygote. For here "I lost my land" is changed; a cell is split and from its splitting grows the thing you hate-"We lost our land." The danger is here, for two men are not as lonely and perplexed as one."
After the series of storms haulted, the government needed to find a response to the problems. President Roosevelt formed the Soil Conservation Service. Nowadays, this organization still exists, and is known as the Natural Resources Conservation Service.








Sources: Wikipedia, Google

http://www.novelguide.com/TheGrapesofWrath/toptenquotes.html
(Ch. 14 & 25)

Additional Quotes from "The Grapes of Wrath"
"The bank is something more than men, I tell you. It's the monster. Men made it, but they can't control it." Chapter 5

"Ma cleared her throat. "It ain't kin we? It's will we?" she said firmly. "As far as 'kin,' we can't do nothin', not go to California or nothin'; but as far as 'will,' why, we'll do what we will. An' as far as 'will'-it's a long time our folks been here and east before, an' I never heerd tell of no Joads or no Hazletts, neither, ever refusin' food an' shelter or a lift on the road to anybody that asked. They's been mean Joads, but never that mean." Ma Joad," Chapter 10

"It ain't that big. The whole United States ain't that big. It ain't that big. It ain't big enough. There ain't room enough for you an' me, for your kind an' my kind, for rich and poor together all in one country, for thieves and honest men. For hunger and fat." Chapter 12







__________________
Breanne

Date:

"Also at this time she wrote a newspaper column called My Day, through which she would talk to Americans, and also, like her husband, she would appear on the radio occasionally to speak to everyone in the country. "

After reading Ashley's essay, I looked up her newspaper column. I was surprised to find out that she wrote one everyday, about issues affecting the country and extraordinarythings she had done throughout the day.


__________________
Breanne

Date:

nysefloor.jpg (255970 bytes)

This is a picture of the stock market crash. It shows the number of people whose jobs and lives were at stake when it happened. This is important because as President, you must keep in mind the small people whose lives were so greatly impacted before you make decisions regarding how you're going to "fix" the country. It is important to note that when some of these people went to book hotel rooms, the clerks asked them whether they wanted it for sleeping, or for jumping.

jobbureau.jpg (40213 bytes)
This picture that I took is at an umemployment registry. As a result of the stockmarket crash, millions of people lost their jobs, and also thousands of former veterans lost their bonuses. It is important you view how many people go to one registry looking for work, and remember that there are thousands of these places all over the country.

bonusmarch.jpg (280502 bytes)
This is a picture of the Bonus Army marched. They marched when they stopped receiving their bonuses they earned after fighting in the war. I took this picture to show the number of people who fought for our country and are now experiencing heartache because they are getting nothing for the years of their lives they gave in the war.

evans1.jpg (199164 bytes)
This picture was taken ofa family shortly before the dust storms began. As you can see Mr. President they look as though they have nothing. This was pre-dust storm. I feel you should keep this in mind when you set up foundations to aid these poor families. They have suffered greatly, and lost the small amount of things they had before they storms began.


dustbowl.jpg (128466 bytes)
This picture is of a father and his two sons. I took this in 1936. This parent had lost all of his land in the dust storm. Even his small house had been crippled. To help these people, huge relief efforts will have to be made. He has lost his life earnings, because of his depression, and will not be able to make any more money because he no longer has land.

sharecropperyard.jpg (32716 bytes)
This is a photo of a sharecropper's land. The sharecropper in question had had a huge farm in Oklahoma before the dust storms devastated it. He had to leave the land with his family, and went to California. In my opinion, I think an area of land, larger and cleaner than this, should be cultivated by an organization that could offer jobs for hundreds, should be given to migrators.

migmoth.jpg (49483 bytes)
The face of the woman in thisphoto from my collection, in my opinion, sums up the feelings of the thousands of people affected bythe terribleduststorms. She isheartbroken and lost. Shefeels as if she has no one to support her, and she can't even do anything for her children. She is one of thousands who need the country's help now, more than ever.

votecomm.jpg (132518 bytes)
This poster illustrates how much of our country feels. It is extremely important to keep this image in mind when you began to create new policies for the country.It shows that there are enough people to form a party against the president. But if you do something to help them, they will feel there is no need for a communist party.


train.jpg (232811 bytes)
This is a very ironic photo. It shows 2 people walking, probably in search of a new home after the dust storms ravaged our country. In the foreground there is a picture of someone sitting in an armchair, stating, "Next time take the train." It is ironic because these people can probably not even afford new shoes, nevermind take the train, and probably don't even have a set destination anywhere.

coffee.jpg (33030 bytes)
This is a picture of a man who has found a home in an abandoned warehouse. He lost his home in Kansas because of the dust storms. Many of his family members were killed because of dust pneumonia. He barely has anything, but this man actually has more than the typical American family right now.

__________________
Chris

Date:

*1929: The Beginning of an Economic Disaster Prior to 1929 the U.S. enjoyed a period of economic boom and affluence, however during the 30s all that would become a fond yet very distant memory. This dream began crashing down in 1929 when the stock market crashed. Huge companies like General Electric, U.S. steel, and others saw their stocks plummet from 396 to about 21 (general electric), but even with this decline in stock prices Americans didnt expect to see a complete collapse of the economy. During the 20s many farmers were financially struggling and thus they were among the 1st people hit by the depression. Also, the big business strategy of increasing profits and prices of goods while holding down wages created a system where workers were not making enough money to buy the manufactured goods. Father Charles E. Coughlin: The Radio Priest

Once one of FDRs avid supporters he soon became one of his most potent and influential critics. A Catholic priest from around Detroit Father Coughlin began using the radio to give fiery speeches about how the presidents New Deal plan was excessively pro-business. Through the power of the radio his speeches reached an audience of about 30 million and perhaps even 40 million people. Even though he had so many listeners his racist and anti-Semitic claims like describing the Jewish bankers the Rothschilds, the Warburgs and others as evil, were what go him taken off the air.

The Banking Crisis:

During the depression many people lost all their faith in their banks and other financial institutions because millions lost all they had saved when many banks nationwide closed . FDR sought a way to fix the problem and to bring back Americas shaken confidence by preventing people from exchanging their assets into gold and by opening up several more established banks with loans form the federal government.

The Dust Bowl disaster:

The Dust Bowl in the southwestern U.S. during the 1930s was one of the most detrimental natural disasters this nation has ever faced. Caused largely by the lack of rainwater and record heat waves in this region, the once rich and fertile topsoil was now creating an arid, dusty, and miserable desert environment to live and farm on. On top of this environment a series of massive wind storms hit this area kicking up hundreds of thousands of tons of dusty topsoil and wreaking havoc on the population there. One of these storms kicked up 300 million tons of topsoil and turned day into night killing hundreds due to dust pneumonia.

Segregation and Racism:

Decades after the 13th , 14th , and 15th amendments blacks and other minorities still suffered under the yoke of oppression, this time in the form of segregation and deep rooted racism. During the new deal years of the 1930s the number of lynchings rose from 8 in 1932 to 28 in 1933. One very publicized case of racism came in 1931 when 9 black men were accused of raping two white women and sentenced to death. However in 1933 the men were given a new trial by the Supreme Court because the Supreme Court did not believe they received a fair trial.

FDR and the election of 1932:

In 1932 the republican president Herbert Hoover was fighting an uphill battle for a second term due to his vast unpopularity as president. With this hit to the republican party this left a hole open for the democrats, more specifically asst. Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. FDRs personality was warm, pleasant and cheerful and was described as a pleasant man who, without important qualifications would very much like to be president, which was a sharp contrast with Herbert Hoovers personality which was often cold and bitter. The election was a blowout with FDR winning 57 percent of the popular vote.

Women in the 30s:

Women during this period saw a lot of progress and many firsts. Under Roosevelts administration many women were appointed to high government positions with the help of Eleanor Roosevelt and Molly Dewson. Molly Dewson who ended up serving as Head of the Womens Division of the Democratic Committee and eventually advisor to President Roosevelt helped (along w/ the 1st lady) to get 2 female ambassadors, a female judge on the U.S. court of appeals, a female director of the mint, and many others.

The Bonus Army:

The depression hit hard almost everyone in the U.S. including thousands of veterans of the Great War who lost their jobs and savings. Many of these veterans marched on Washington demanding their army bonuses (which werent due them until 1945) from Congress. Overruling the presidents veto Congress passed a bill stating that the veterans could borrow up to 50% of their bonuses, but this wasnt enough and many stayed in the shacks of bonus city outside of Washington. In June the Senate defeated the bonus bill and many frustrated vets left for home. The remaining vets and their families met a swift and powerful response from the Gov. in the form of tanks, fully armed troops, and tear gas to clear the remaining protestors.

Depression Abroad:

The effects of the financial crippling and collapse of the great depression were not only felt here in the U.S. but in most of the industrialized world. Soon after the U.S.s economic downturn the countries of Austria and Germany saw their banks collapse and inflation run ramped. Later that year England abandoned the gold standard precipitating a decline in international lending and trade. Not long after that the nations of Argentina, Brazil, Japan, and others followed the U.S. into the depression , leaving their people hungry and unemployed. This international economic decline showed that the U.S. was a major economic world power as it was linked w/ so many nations.

Unemployment in the 30s:

Largely due to the decline in American consumption of goods many businesses and factories laid off its workers, cut back on manufacturing, or just simply closed completely. This trend left thousands without work and (due to bank closings) many without any savings. During the 30s the number of unemployed Americans peaked at almost 40% and did not see significant improvement until the outbreak of WWII. In 1939.





__________________
Chris

Date:

Main Causes of the Depression:

By: Christopher Amaral

Many Americans blame the stock market crash of 1929 for the overall decline of the American (and subsequently the worlds) economy in the Great Depression, however many other factors lead to the U.S.s downward spiral.

It is true that the Great Depression as we know it was initially triggered by the drastic decline in stock prices and the panic and frantic selling that soon followed. However many Americans, especially farmers, saw a period of financial struggle even before the crash, during the period of economic boom and affluence of the 20s. During World War I the federal government had subsidized farms, and paid absurdly high prices for wheat and other grains and had encouraged farmers to produce more food to feed the starving Europeans as well as Americans. However after the Federal government stopped paying $2 a bushel and prices dropped to 67 cents and lower. As a result farmers all across the country were being thrown into massive debt as food prices continued to dip.

Two other large causes of the Depression came from a misdistribution of wealth and and the extensive stock market speculation that took place during the latter part that same decade. The vast economic imbalance and misdistribution of wealth between the wealthy and the middle-class was staggering. In 1929 the top 0.1% of Americans had a combined income equal to the bottom 42%. That same top 0.1% of Americans in 1929 controlled 34% of all savings, while 80% of Americans had no savings at all. Most middle-class Americans at the time had an annual income of about $2,500 per year and spent almost all of it on consumer goods like food, clothes and luxury products, whereas the top 25% of the population would only spend a small percent of their money on the same goods. The way the lower and middle classes stood afloat was to buy things on credit.

By buying goods on credit many Americans went out and bought all sorts of goods that they would not normally be able to afford and created an increased demand for consumer goods. However, by the time of the great depression many people had already bought much of what they needed and wanted on credit and were preoccupied with paying their debts, so the demand for goods dropped dramatically putting many businesses in a pinch. Without the demand for goods many companies slowed and sometimes even stopped production, laying off workers and closing altogether which left thousands without jobs or a way to survive, let alone pay their debts.

Those with money and power (the top 25%) invested a lot of their fortunes into the stock market with the idea that the wealth and prosperity of the 20s would last forever. As a result, many wealthy investors who put up most of their fortunes gambling lost it all when the common people could no longer afford the goods they were selling, bringing sales and stock prices crashing. As you can see, the depression actually started much earlier than the actual stock market crash, unfortunately power, money, and roaring good times blinded them from seeing what was just around the corner.

Sources:

Gusmorino, Paul A., III. "Main Causes of the Great Depression." Gusmorino World (May 13, 1996). Online. Internet: http://www.gusmorino.com/pag3/great_depression/index.html.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression

http://www.amatecon.com/gd/gdcandc.html



__________________
Chris

Date:

Image5.gif
Unemployed men vying for jobs at the American Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles during the Great Depression.This particular photo shows the frenzy and chaotic environment that almost 40% of Americans had to face. This really illustrates how frustrating and difficult it was to be unemployed and even more frustrating and difficult it was to get a job during this time as people nearly trample each other to get to the front of the line. The desperation of the men are shown clearly in their facial expressions and embody the struggle that nearly very single American was facing at this time.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Image6.gif

In this Great country which was founded on the principles of freedom, equality, and justice there still exists the ugly face of segregation and injustice in this country. Here we see a well dressed man of color waiting at what appears to be a bus stop. Just above this man hangs a sign saying Colored Waiting Room as a painful reminder of the deep rooted institutional racism that gripped the nation at this time. Almost 70 years after the end of the civil war the struggle for racial and social equality for all Americans raged on.

_____________________________________________________________________________Image7.gif

This photo shows the floor of the New York stock exchange just after the 1929 crash. Although the photo is a little fuzzy you can still see the frenzy on the floor as men rush to sell their stocks to nonexistent buyers. Just as the Stock Market Crash initiated the Great Depression and gave us a brief glimpse of the turmoil and despair that was to come I think this photo embodies what people in America (and around the world) were thinking as the market crashed. This gives us a brief glimpse into the minds of those who struggled through the depression not just at this moment but throughout the 30s.

Image8.gif

Here in this photo police are standing guard outside the World Exchange Bank in New York. Notice how every one in the picture looks suspicious of something. The police look suspiciously at the men on the left as the men look suspiciously inside the bank. This picture really illustrates the general American sentiment and suspicion of banks due to the closing of so many banks nationwide, casuing people to lose all their savings. The general air of suspicion and mistrust from both the men and police outside the bank perfectly captures the feelings and ideals of so many Americans who lost it all to the banks.

Image9.gif

Here you can see the uproar and anger in the bonus marchers faces. The banners flying along with hundreds of fists being thrust into the air gives you a sense of the power that this movement conveyed. As you go from focusing on the large group as a whole and you begin to pick out and see the actual individuals and look at their expressions and actions you get a sort of intimacy or oneness with that persons cause and you can see their passion, as if saying without saying This is it, this is our last chance to get back to where we were.

Image10.gif

I dont believe the dust bowl could have come at a worse time than during the great depression when Americans, especially Americans farmers, were at their weakest. However this particular photograph demonstrates the hardened resolve of those hit hardest by poverty and nature. It shows that at their time of greatest weakness these people carry on and demonstrate unknowingly a hidden strength that can only be brought out in the worst of times.

Image11.gif

The shear look of absolute desperation on the faces of these two women is one that was worn by thousands of men and women and men across this country as they struggled with problems and obstacles that were mentally and physically draining that it drove some to just end it all. But faintly in the background you can see a small glimmer of hope and determination in this picture as the little boy smiles for the camera. Against all odds and against so many obstacles he still finds a reason to smile, which is really the only reason why anyone at this time struggled so much.

Image12.gif

During this time many people just up and left their homes in the Midwest and went on the road. This photograph shows the irony of the billboard which says Next time take the train, Relax as the men walk by it on a dirt road with not much more than the clothes on their backs, and probably no more than a few pennies in their pocket (if they had that).

Image13.gif

Struggles and obstacles seemed to be the norm during the tough days of the depression. Even trying to get a job was a huge obstacle. Because of the high demand for jobs getting one was like fighting a full scale war single handedly as you faced off with hundreds of others competing for the same job. These lines would often stretch around whole city blocks sometimes over a mile. With all this competition the chances of getting a job were very slim, and they know it. And even with the knowledge that they would most likely not get the job the pure desperation and frustration of living in a state of perpetual poverty was the reason why so many went and waited for hours even days, to have a slim chance at changing their lives (if only a little) for the better.

Image14.gif

Here we see a truly unique photograph, one that depicts three groups held back by their place in society. These groups were the minorities which included black sharecroppers in the south, Mexican farmers in the southwest, and others. The second group was composed of women who were often looked down on in the work place and were often paid much less then men for doing the same work. The third group (which both of these people belong) was that of the youth of America who were unable to vote and in many cases unable to voice their opinions in the midst of all the suffering and struggle of their elders. Here we see two people who are working and struggling together to have their voices heard and their message recognized.



__________________
Breanne

Date:

Part 3
http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/eb0435.htm


May 8, 1935

Dear Miss E.B,

It has come to my attention that you are one of many young students across the nation that is in need of a graduation outfit.

You along with many others, has worked hard to graduate high school and pass all of your classes.

You seem to be an honest, hard working girl. I receive many letters a day asking for an outfit, or for a new pair of shoes, but you are the first who has told me what you have done for others. I am very surprised that you give all of your earnings to your family.

This does not happen often. I will see what I can do to help you out with your graduation attire.

Sincerely yours,
Mrs. Roosevelt





To the Parents of Miss B.,

Your lovely daughter wrote me a letter not more than one week ago, asking for an outfit to wear to her high school graduation.

I am writing this letter in regards to a family that has a wonderful child with a large heart. I hope that when I send her a new graduation dress it is given to her. I will also be sending shoes to accompany the new dress.

You may ask why I chose your daughter to help out of so many thousands of little girls across the counry. Well your daughter caught my attention when she mentioned she would like to work for charity just to "get the pleasure of healing people." This touched my heart, as I help with several charities across the world.

I have learned the effects of what one person can do to change the world. I feel your daughter possesses those qualities. You should be very proud.


Sincerely yours,
Mrs. Roosevelt



http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/oc0335.htm

March 27, 1935


My dear O.C.:

After receiving your letter, and reading the first line, I was pleased to see that you were in good health.

As I read on, I felt sympathy for you, and hope your treatment for your arm went well.

I have decided to send you the $7.50 for your medical bill. Please be aware that I do not do this often, but by hearing your story, and seeing the small amount it took to save your arm I feel that I am able to send you the money.

I will be writing to your parents however, letting them know what the money is for, and what a thoughtful child they both have.

I would very much appreciate a visit from you if I am in when you are on vacation this summer. Stay healthy and take care of yourself.

I will send the money as soon as I am able.

Sincerely yours,
Mrs. Roosevelt



March 27, 1935


To the Parents of O.C:

A couple of days ago, your daughter wrote me a letter regarding a doctor's appointment she had.

She asked me for $7.50 to pay a medical bill she received after having an infected arm.

I have decided to send her the money by April 5, and I am asking you to be sure the Doctor receives it.

You have a very thoughtful daughter, and this is no great deal for me.

I am happy I could help a young girl, who I hope will go on to do great things in the future.

Sincerely yours,
Mrs. Roosevelt



http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/jia0438.htm


April 25, 1938


My dear J.I.A,

I am sorry to inform you that I cannot comply with your requests.

I have too many wishes a day for similar requests.

After reading your letter, I feel the place you should be is with your sickly mother. She needs you right now. I am not saying that I will never help you, because maybe, one time in the future, if you write back to me when your mother is in good health, I can be of great help.

However, I am going to send you and your mother some money, $25.00 to be exact. I feel this money will help your mother with her heart problem.

I presume the money will get to her safely if I send it back to this address.

Good luck in the future!

Sincerely yours,
Mrs. Roosevelt


April 25, 1938


To the Mother of J.I.A:

Your daughter wrote me a letter asking for me to pay her way to Hollywood.

I sorry to inform you that I declined.

However, she also informed me of your heart condition. I am sorry to hear that. I have let her know that I will be sending $25.00 to this address sometime in the next week.

I hope you receive it and use it to get well.


Sincerely yours,
Mrs. Roosevelt



__________________
Breanne

Date:

Dorothy Day


Dorothy Day is a Catholic Worker. She lives on the East Side of New York. Her abode is very humble and lacks any luxuries. Her friends would describe her as being "too religious to be really a good revolutionist," because she was a strong believer in pacifism.
December of 1932 was a changing time for her. She covered hunger marces and Unemployment Councils. Throughout her lifetime she engaged in many protests. When she was in New York, she helped many people find apartments and get them settled in by having relief stations pay for the first months rents.
She was against the New Deal and didn't campaign for social security. She wasn't exactly against the reform measures of the New Deal, but she felt it should have been done by smaller groups of people.


As Dorothy Day:


I was affected by many things during the Great Depression. Since I worked for Unemployment Councils i was faced with these people daily. I protested with them against police stations. I also helped many people find new places to live when they were evicted from their homes
One day, when I was in the East Side of New York City, you could barely walk because everyone was being evicted and there was furniture all over the streets.
I went to relief stations with other people who wanted to help and we got them to pay the first months of rent for all of these people.

Gender Equality, Economic Power, Prejudice, Rights

I was affected by gender equality mishaps several times during the 1930s. When I went on strike and protested us women were not treated as equal as men. Also, they felt communist women could never be as powerful as men, especially since I was a firm believer in Pacifism. Economic power was always a problem. I didn't have a lot of money and I was in the same boat as many of the people I was fighting for. I would go to bread lines, although I never formed them. I wanted everyone to have the same rights. They talk about the Left and the Right, yet all men are brothers. Communists understand this, they just want to use force. My hope was for a nonviolent revolution to occur. I faced prejudices when we moved into a more respectable type neighborhood, and people used to throw stuff at us out of their windows, while shouting degrading things, and that we were degrading their homes.



__________________
Breanne

Date:

Earl Dickinson

Earl Dickinson is President of the Supreme Life Insurance Company. He has been president of the Chicago Urban League, as well as of the National Bar Association, the Cook County Bar Association and the National Lawyers Guild.
From the years 1939 to 1941 he was a member of the Chicago City Council as alderman from the Second Ward. He felt the Depression was like a hurricane that was not prejudiced. He argued for better relief treatment for the people in his city. When the mayor of his city chose a newcomer over him to the postion of a candidate for the Democratic party, he never went back to the Council Chambers.


As Earl Dickinson:

I wasn't in great need during the Great Depression. I was doing alright. I was however, trying to help the people who needed jobs in my neighborhood, even though the other councilmen rarely supported me in my efforts. I also fought for equal rights between African American and white children. I didn't find it fair that the white children could transfer out of certain school departments, but the African American ones couldn't. I tried my best with these efforts, but the Mayor of the council never listened to anything I had to say, eventually resulting in my leaving the position of alderman.

I dealt with prejudice, rights problem, justice problems and racism. I was rarely listened to during meetings of the Council and wasn't nominated for any positions even though I knew I deserved them over the newcomers. My thoughts and opinions were overlooked when it came to important matters because of my race. It was very unfair that I was never moved up in the Council. However, after leaving I achieved many high positions in other organizations across the country.





__________________
Breanne

Date:

Jane Yoder


Jane Yoder was a mother of two sons who grew uo during the Depression. She is a member of the middle middle class, not the upper or lower as she would put it.
Growing up, her father was a miner who lost his job during the early 1930's. He went elsewhere to find a job. He was schizophrenic. The children always struggled to find warmth. Her father worked for the WPA, and her family almost always went hungry. After she got married, she enjoyed the luxuries of life, and never took anything for granted.


As Jane Yoder:

As a child growing up, I dealt with a lot of heartache. My father suffered from mental problems, and my family almost always went hungry. I had two brothers who wanted to do anything they could to help the family. I remember when i was a young girl and I went to my friend Sue's house. Well she gave me a coat that didn't quite fit, but I remember how much I appreciated it because it kept me warm. I would do anything for warmth.

I was affected by prejudice, economic power, rights and gender equalities. Growing up I knew of families who had it better than me, who would talk about it right to my face. They would be the children of doctors and nurses, who would treat my family differently because we didn't have luxuries. Economic power was in the hands of people who had money, we didn't even have warmth. My mother couldn't find a job because of the lack of gender equality. Women were rarely asked to work for large relief organizations. Our rights were limited because of our lack of money also, or atleast it seemed that way. I went without a lot, and so did the rest of my family. Even though we were looked at and treated differently, we still had so much love for one another.



__________________
Erin

Date:

PART III

Letters:

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/ee0935.htm

Dear E.E:

I appreciate the time and effort you spent writing to me. Regrettably, however, due to the number of similar requests I have received I am unable to help you. I would like to, nevertheless, applaud your efforts to earn the money yourself through these subscriptions. As you may or may not know we have been trying to begin programs that might help your father to get and keep a steady job where he can make enough money to support your family. Maybe one day youll sell enough subscriptions and he can give you a bit of money to buy that bicycle. Again I send my sincerest apologies for being unable to help you in the manner of which you ask.

I hope one day that you write to tell me you have gotten your bicycle.

Sincerely,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/cbs0136.htm

Dear C.B.S.:

I would like to thank you for spending the time you did, writing to me. Also I think it is honorable that you wish to help those children in your charge in those rural schools. However, I cannot comply with your wishes at this time as I have already pledged all available funds to other services. I would however like tell you about many work programs my husband has been implementing which may help the parents of your students to receive work which will help them better support their families. I suggest that you may inform them of the Works Progress Administration closest to them so that they may go there to find work. I must again apologize for not being able to fully assist you.

I would again like to thank you for your interest in helping these students.

Sincerely,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/ac0334.htm

Dear N.J.:

I appreciate that you took the time to write to me. As much as I would wish to help you, due to the number of requests like yours that I have received I am not able to help you in the way that you would like. There are many people like you that have lost most of what they had during this great Depression. I was sorry to hear of your brother taking all of your money. I would however like to inform you of the Works Progress Administration, where your father could possibly receive steady work in order to better support your family. Again it is with upmost sadness that I cannot comply fully with your request.

Sincerely,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt



__________________
ashley

Date:

Chris wrote:

Main Causes of the Depression:

By: Christopher Amaral

i did not realize the extent of the other factors on the deterioration of the economy until i read chris's essay, my stubborn mind was still stuck on the fact that it was all the stock market's fault



__________________
ashley

Date:

Ashley Baldo

10 facts

  1. about 250,000 young men left school and were drifting around the country looking for work. But there was no work for them, so the CCC was formed.
  2. when the stock market crashed many people did not expect it, but they still did not see that the entire economy would soon crash around it.
  3. people who were working to produce goods were not able to buy the goods, because the companies were raising the prices of what they produced, but they were not raising their wages.
  4. the first new deal lasted from 1933-1935 and worked to stimulate the economy and relieve the effects of the depression.
  5. Roosevelt was almost never photographed in his wheelchair, he did not want to appear paralyzed because he feared that it would make him appear weak.
  6. none of the bills that Roosevelt passed in his first one hundred days in office cured the depression, but they did constitute a great a great period of change.
  7. John Collier was appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs. He helped to pass Indian Reorganization act of 1934.
  8. More women than ever were occupying high government positions during the 1930s.
  9. FDR was president for more than twelve years, more than any other president of past or future, because a restriction is now put on how many terms a president can serve.
  10. Eleanor Roosevelt was the most active first lady to date, she helped to push her husband to help minorities and the less fortunate in the country.


__________________
ashley

Date:

Ashley Baldo

2.08

letters

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/lh1136.htm

Dear Ms. H:

I am so sorry to hear that you do not have any clothes to wear. Also, I feel greatly obligated to help you since you are currently unable to attend school because of this issue. So attached with this letter should be a package containing some old clothes of mine and some others that I dearly hope will fit you. I hope that you will now return to school and do well.

Sincerely yours,

Eleanor Roosevelt

Dear Ms. Hs Parents:

I am very sorry to hear of your daughters problem with being unable to obtain clothes, so I have sent some of mine to her. I sincerely hope that you will help her to go through school and give her a great life, she seems to be doing well already. Best of luck in these hard times.

Sincerely yours,

Eleanor Roosevelt

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/wb0738.htm

Dear Ms. B:

Unfortunately I am unable to help you with your endeavors. But I will tell you to have your father come to D.C. and register with the United States Employment Service under the Department of Labor. They should be able to find him a job. Then when your father has steady employment he might be able to help you through college. In the meantime keep your head up and keep looking for a job, you will succeed.

Sincerely yours,

Eleanor Roosevelt

Dear Ms. Bs Parents:

You have raised an educated and sophisticated young lady, by the letter that she wrote me. I have heard that you are having a hard time finding work, so I suggested that you look into the United States Employment Service under the Department of Labor. I was unable to comply with her request and I hope that you are able to help her. Best of luck in these hard times.

Sincerely yours,

Eleanor Roosevelt

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/ee0935.htm

Dear Ms. E:

Since I do love to read magazines such as the ones you are selling I would love to purchase one of your subscriptions. Enclosed is the money that you will need. I hope that you are able to find other people to help you buy your bicycle. I am very proud to know that there are young citizens working hard to achieve the things that they need. Good Luck with your endeavors.

Sincerely yours,

Eleanor Roosevelt

Dear Ms. Es Parents:

You have certainly raised a smart and goal-oriented child. As I have told her I am proud to see hard-working Americans striving to achieve their goals. That is why I purchased one of her magazine subscriptions. I hope that she is able to sell the rest. Best of luck in these hard times.

Sincerely yours,

Eleanor Roosevelt

__________________
ashley

Date:

Ashley Baldo

2.08

photos

This is a family that is on relief in Illinois. They do not have anything as you can see from this photograph, and they are living in destitute conditions, as you can see by the conditions of the walls and the crumbling ceiling they live under, they do not even have pillows under their heads because that is an unaffordable luxury for them. Remember this photo as not enough help because people do not have enough, and are not getting enough, and this is where they end up.

In this picture we see two young boys waiting in a soup kitchen line in Iowa. They would have had to have waited for most of the day to receive the little amount of soup that they will get. Some still go away hungry. This soup that they get is most likely the only food they will eat this day. Remember this photo as not enough to eat because that is the reality for millions in America just like these little boys, who have to face this reality way too early.

This man is living in one of those crowded areas filled with the homeless that some refer to as hobo jungles in Minnesota. There is just no way for him to afford food if he cant even afford a roof. So here he has killed a turtle to make soup, the only food he will eat is the kind he can get and make himself now. Remember this as survival these people are now doing anything to survive because they do not have any other way.This is a womans home in Texas, or we may not even refer to it as a home because it resembles more of a shack than anything else. All of her things must fit into the tiny space you see here, with hardly any room for moving. But she has no other choice because she cannot afford a home. Remember this as trapped because people are being trapped in the fact that they cannot afford food if they want a house and vice versa, and people are being trapped by this reality.These kids are the members of a picket line outside at the Kind Farm Strike in Pennsylvania. We can see two specific things in this picture, one that this union is not segregated, which most believe that all or most are, but that is not true, a lot are integrationist. Second is that these kids must either work here, which is a horrible truth to face. Or their parents worked there and the causes for the strike are hitting them so hard that they need to go out on strike to help their parents. Remember this as deaf because unions only go on strike and workers only go on strike when they are unable to receive what they need, and the heads of businesses are turning a deaf ear to the cries of these people.In Tennessee this is the daily lineup for the State Employment Service Office. All these men are hoping to get work today so that they might be able to feed their families tonight. Unfortunately many will go home with no job and no money to help them. So remember this as left because these people are being left behind in the dust with no hope for employment or assistance. Here is a shack where these poor unemployed men will most likely sleep tonight in the middle of December in New York. They do not have jobs to get themselves homes or any other things, so they are huddled around the fire in the middle of them trying to stay warm. Remember this as Merry Christmas because that is a Christmas tree that is poised right by their tiny shack. They do not have any home for Christmas, and you can pretty much picture that they wont have much food either.In California there are refugees from the drought plaguing the Midwest. They cannot farm and they have lost their homes because they are unable to work so they have left and gone in search of other places to go. They are living out of their cars that contain all their belongings and keep moving to find places to live. Remember this as modern day nomads because that is what these people have been reduced to, moving from place to place trying to find food and shelter.

There is a new strike tactic that has been developed in the country. Here in Michigan is an example of a sit down strike where workers do not leave the plant and stay outside, but instead stay indoors where they can actively prevent work being done while they are on strike because the heads of corporation cant hire scabs or strike breakers because all the workers are inside. Remember this as cooperation because it requires a lot of cooperation to have a strike such as this one. Also while they are on strike they organize different activities and work together towards the same goals.

Here we see a man and his two sons in the Midwest during the approach of a dust storm in Oklahoma. Tons and tons of dust was torn from the ground by winds because the grasses that once held the dirt down are no longer there because the farmers took it out to grow wheat, which has smaller roots, and cant hold the soil. These storms are highly destructive and even deadly. Remember this is buried because houses and lands could be buried by the dirt in the air from a dust storm, and this of course is devastating to lands and the people in them.

__________________
ashley

Date:

Ashley Baldo

2.08

photos

the first one was messed up so illtry to post again. the pictures are also supposed to be here,but they dont seem to be posting...sorry

This is a family that is on relief in Illinois. They do not have anything as you can see from this photograph, and they are living in destitute conditions, as you can see by the conditions of the walls and the crumbling ceiling they live under, they do not even have pillows under their heads because that is an unaffordable luxury for them. Remember this photo as not enough help because people do not have enough, and are not getting enough, and this is where they end up.

In this picture we see two young boys waiting in a soup kitchen line in Iowa. They would have had to have waited for most of the day to receive the little amount of soup that they will get. Some still go away hungry. This soup that they get is most likely the only food they will eat this day. Remember this photo as not enough to eat because that is the reality for millions in America just like these little boys, who have to face this reality way too early.

This man is living in one of those crowded areas filled with the homeless that some refer to as hobo jungles in Minnesota. There is just no way for him to afford food if he cant even afford a roof. So here he has killed a turtle to make soup, the only food he will eat is the kind he can get and make himself now. Remember this as survival these people are now doing anything to survive because they do not have any other way.This is a womans home in Texas, or we may not even refer to it as a home because it resembles more of a shack than anything else. All of her things must fit into the tiny space you see here, with hardly any room for moving. But she has no other choice because she cannot afford a home. Remember this as trapped because people are being trapped in the fact that they cannot afford food if they want a house and vice versa, and people are being trapped by this reality.These kids are the members of a picket line outside at the Kind Farm Strike in Pennsylvania. We can see two specific things in this picture, one that this union is not segregated, which most believe that all or most are, but that is not true, a lot are integrationist. Second is that these kids must either work here, which is a horrible truth to face. Or their parents worked there and the causes for the strike are hitting them so hard that they need to go out on strike to help their parents. Remember this as deaf because unions only go on strike and workers only go on strike when they are unable to receive what they need, and the heads of businesses are turning a deaf ear to the cries of these people.In Tennessee this is the daily lineup for the State Employment Service Office. All these men are hoping to get work today so that they might be able to feed their families tonight. Unfortunately many will go home with no job and no money to help them. So remember this as left because these people are being left behind in the dust with no hope for employment or assistance. Here is a shack where these poor unemployed men will most likely sleep tonight in the middle of December in New York. They do not have jobs to get themselves homes or any other things, so they are huddled around the fire in the middle of them trying to stay warm. Remember this as Merry Christmas because that is a Christmas tree that is poised right by their tiny shack. They do not have any home for Christmas, and you can pretty much picture that they wont have much food either.In California there are refugees from the drought plaguing the Midwest. They cannot farm and they have lost their homes because they are unable to work so they have left and gone in search of other places to go. They are living out of their cars that contain all their belongings and keep moving to find places to live. Remember this as modern day nomads because that is what these people have been reduced to, moving from place to place trying to find food and shelter.

There is a new strike tactic that has been developed in the country. Here in Michigan is an example of a sit down strike where workers do not leave the plant and stay outside, but instead stay indoors where they can actively prevent work being done while they are on strike because the heads of corporation cant hire scabs or strike breakers because all the workers are inside. Remember this as cooperation because it requires a lot of cooperation to have a strike such as this one. Also while they are on strike they organize different activities and work together towards the same goals.

Here we see a man and his two sons in the Midwest during the approach of a dust storm in Oklahoma. Tons and tons of dust was torn from the ground by winds because the grasses that once held the dirt down are no longer there because the farmers took it out to grow wheat, which has smaller roots, and cant hold the soil. These storms are highly destructive and even deadly. Remember this is buried because houses and lands could be buried by the dirt in the air from a dust storm, and this of course is devastating to lands and the people in them.

__________________
ashley

Date:

Ashley Baldo

Lewis Andreas-

He was a doctor during a time when a lot of strikes grew violent. He was called from his hospital to attend to workers who had had force used upon them, so he had to treat anything from tear gas exposure to bullet wounds to the back. This he didnt understand because people should not be getting shot when they are trying to run away.

He also talks about the time when people did not really have any money to pay for medical care. So they would receive free medical care. He told about this one woman who drove a Cadillac but would park it a ways away because she wanted to appear affluent but she really wasnt, and when the people saw her driving in that car they wouldnt extend to her the free medical care that she needed.

So through his life he was affected by the strikes that happened in the cities because he had to treat the patients and the cops that would become a part of them after a while. He was also greatly affected by the depression, not necessarily personally, but he saw the people that it affected as his job, and that would affect him. Also new advances in medical technology and medicine, which happen all the time, also affected him. Because he would often prolong the life of a seemingly terminal patient to the greatest extent in the hope that soon a cure would be available.

The issues faced would first have to include justice. He did not see the justice in shooting strikers as they ran away from you to retreat. Then he would have to include economic power. He was an affluent standing man with money, so that he did not much have to deal with loss of money, but he saw those without money and without any hope on a daily basis. Then we would have to include rights, like the right to medical care by professionals, which he provided free to those who qualified for it. Then finally he saw equality, in people who appeared affluent but werent and how they deserved the same treatment as others, and how gradually the more and more affluent were unable to pay for their health care and how they too would require the equality in receiving health care for no charge.



__________________
Erin

Date:

PART III

This is a photo of a bedroom, where a family on relief lives. This picture seems to show that relief was helpful for people when they had to keep a roof over their head, however shabby it may be. It also implies that the family may have absolutely needed the relief to keep their home because of the condition it was in. It is important in my opinion because it shows just how bad things had gotten even for those who had previously owned their own homes.

This is a photo of a bus station in North Carolina. It shows some of the extent of segregation even more than 70 years after the Civil War. This picture clearly shows that there was a separate colored waiting room at a bus station in North Carolina. This sort of segregation was present in many areas especially in the South. I feel that this photo was important because it showed just how long segregation and racism had been going on after the Civil War and after all of the Reconstruction that we had undergone.

This is a picture of a separate movie theatre just for African Americans, in Leland Mississippi. It is another example of how bad segregation in public facilities was especially in the south. Much like the above picture of the southern bus station, this picture represents the fact that racism and segregation lasted far after the Civil War was over. I feel it is important because it solidifies what we know about southern racism.

This is one photo of many which shows a shack that was built out of scraps in a vacant lot. This one was in San Antonio Texas, in the Mexican District. Many people during this time were homeless and were forced to make their own homes out of scraps that they would come by. It is important because it showed how desperate people were.

This is a photo of an unemployment line in Memphis, Tennessee. As you can see the line goes on as far as this photograph shows, and probably longer. During the Great Depression the percent of unemployed workers had risen to 25%, and these long lines were not uncommon. I felt that this photo was important because it gives you a firsthand look at how many people were greatly affected and out of work because of the Great Depression.

This is a photograph of a picket line in New York City. The American Federation of Labor was founded in the 1930s and it attributed to a spike in the number of unions protecting employees across the nation. It also led to better working conditions for many employees. I felt that this picture was important because it shows how people are striking, whether it is for fair wages, or better conditions and this could be contributed to the institution of the American Federation of Labor.

This is a picture of an unemployment rally in Columbus, Kansas. Like I have mentioned before there was an unemployment rate of 25% at one point. At this point in time many people held unemployment demonstrations to inform people of their plight. I feel that it is an important photograph because it shows the extent of how many people were unemployed as well as the lengths that they were willing to go to inform people as well as maybe receive some sort of employment.

This is a picture of some cabbage harvesters in Salinas, California. According to the caption that joined this picture many of these workers were from the Philippines. During this time many minorities were willing to work for next to nothing while white American workers demanded fair wages. Because these workers were willing to work for so little, employers and farmers exploited them. I felt this photo was important because it shows how many minority workers were exploited during the Great Depression.

This picture is one of a family living in deplorable condition. However conditions like this were not entirely uncommon during the Great Depression. People had to do whatever they could to survive and if that meant building a rickety home out of scrap material, they were going to do it. I feel it is important to show because it showed just how terrible things had gotten for people, especially in rural areas.

This photo is one of a man with his two sons in what seems to be a dust storm. This was not uncommon in Oklahoma where this picture was taken. Oklahoma was right in the middle of the Dust Bowl which was where there were thousands of dust storms every year. I felt that this photograph was one of importance because it showed the extent of some of the damage that these dust storms caused.



__________________
Erin

Date:

I tried to but the pictures wouldn't post with the text.

__________________
Anonymous

Date:

Kelby KimPart III

Photo Essay of the Great Depression


This is a picture of men vying for jobs at the American Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles. This picture represents the massive amount of unemployed people in the country all in competition for only a few available jobs. This picture represents the urgent need for some type of employment assistance by the Government.

This is a picture of a squatters camp on Route 70 in Arkansas. This picture shows the living situation of so many people in this Country today. Many have bee forced to leave their homes and set up plywood or cardboard shelters. This is a good example of the extremely poor living conditions faced by many Americans today

This is a picture of a family in Oklahoma in a dust storm. In addition to the problems that the farmers have faced due to the poor economy the farmers of the Great Plains have also been victims of a drought which has ruined all of their crops and caused great dust storms. When the high winds blow, the dried topsoil blows around fiercely. Everything is covered with dust these people have to cover their faces to keep the dust out of their eyes and noses.

This is a picture of a migrant mother who is destitute in a pea camp. I believe that her fact tells it all. When this picture was taken the family had just sold their tent to buy food. Her face represents the 2,500 other destitute people living in the pea camp. I believe that her face represents a good portion of the American people. Sad and worn, wondering how much more they can tolerate. Looking for some hope for the future.
This picture represents the thousands of people who have left their homes in the South and in the Great Plains to go on the road in search of work. The sign shows the irony of the situation telling the individual to relax and take the train. People at this time are far from relaxed. They have lost nearly everything that they own. They probably cant afford to pay for the train. This represents the migration going on in America today and something needs to be done to help the many displaced people.


This is a picture of
Unemployed workers in front of a shack with Christmas tree, East 12th Street, New York City. There are many areas like this around all of the major cities in America today. The picture demonstrates the sad state of many citizens of this nation. Look at the men holding their heads in their hands see how depressed and defeated they look. They need work to be able to support themselves and gain back some sense of pride.This is a picture of many people standing in line to receive government commodities. This picture is repeated across the nation every day as people have come to depend on the government for their daily needs. As important as it is to keep this aid going, the government must find a way to put these people to work so that they will not become dependent on the government long term.


This is a picture of two young boys at one of the many soup kitchens across the Country. They come every day with their buckets in order to have something to eat. This is a very good program because it feeds the masses and children taking advantage of this program do not have to go to bed hungry.

This is a photo of strikers guarding a window at the Fisher body plant in Flint, Michigan. This is referred to as a Strike down. The workers enter the plant but refuse to work. The men are striking to have unions represent them in bargaining for better wages and better working conditions. Both the National Industrial Recovery Act and the Wagner Act have made an impact in this area.

This is a photo of a Squatters camp in California. These types of camps and living situations can be seen across this nation from east coast to the west coast in rural as well as urban areas. It represents the poverty of this nation and the sad and destitute conditions that so many Americans are faced with today. The Federal programs that are being provided are very helpful but as you can see more help is needed.


__________________
kelby

Date:

Kelby Kim

Assignment # 21: The Great Depression

Part 1 Text Analysis

  1. Herbert Hoover was elected President of the United States in 1928, winning by a landslide. He had only been President for 6 months when the stock market crash of 1929 occurred. At the time of the crash, he thought that the downward slide would only be for a short while and that the economy would soon prosper again. He urged businesses not to cut wages and private charities to increase effort to help the needy and the jobless. He realized the need for more government action as the Depression got worse but he believed that assistance should come from the state and local governments and not the federal government.
  2. Bonus March of 1932 was a march on WashingtonDC by a group of unemployed World War I veterans. They were there to demand a payment of the bonuses that were promised to them at a later date. They didnt want to wait for the bonus payment in 1945 because they needed it immediately in order to support their families. Some of the veterans brought there wives and children and thousands of these people set up camp in shacks near the Capitol. Congress did not pass the bonus bill that the veterans were marching and two veterans were killed in a clash with police. Hoover ordered the break up of the camp by the army and the army used tanks and tear gas to destroy the camp and drive the veterans away. This incident made Hoover very unpopular with the American people.
  3. Twentieth Amendment was passed in 1933. This amendment shortened the amount of time between the presidential election and the inauguration. Prior to this amendment being passed the inauguration took place in March after the presidential election. The twentieth amendment change the inauguration date to January 20th. This amendment is known as the lame-duck amendment because for four months after Roosevelt was elected President in 1932 he had to wait to be inaugurated. During the four months Hoover remained in the office but and he was powerless to do anything about the depression which was getting worse. He wanted to work with Roosevelt but Roosevelt did not want to be tied to any of Hoovers ideas. Hoover became known as the lame duck President.
  4. Roosevelt Administration was responsible for the Repeal of Prohibition. In 1933, Roosevelt kept a campaign promise and enacted the repeal of Prohibition. In 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment was passed repealing the Eighteenth Amendment, ending Prohibition. In addition to repealing prohibition that year, Congress passed the Beer-Wine Revenue Act, which legalized the sale of beer and wine and levied a tax on both.
  5. Fireside chats were used to assure the American people. Roosevelt used the radio to talk to the American people. He went on the radio for the first time on March 12, 1933 to give the first of his many fireside chats. In his chats, he would inform the American people of the things that he was doing to solve the nations problems. These chats became reassuring to the American people. He used these chats to communicate important information to the people such as information relative to the reopening of the banks after the bank holiday. In his talk about the banks, he was able to convince people that the banks were now safe and people began to deposit their money in the reopened bank at a greater rate than withdrawals.
  6. The Banking Crisis was one of the immediate problems that Roosevelt faced when he took office in 1933. When Roosevelt took office, banks were failing at a very high rate. Many banks had closed and Americans had lost trust in the banks. People were withdrawing all of their money from the banks and they were hoarding money and putting their assets into gold. To restore confidence in the banks that were still functional Roosevelt declared a four-day bank holiday. The government reorganized the banking system and when they were sound Roosevelt allowed them to reopen and he went on the radio to advise the people that the banks were now safe and that the people should feel comfortable putting their money in the bank.
  7. Father Charles E. Coughlin was a Catholic priest from a Detroit suburb who was opposed to the New Deal. Father Coughlin had a radio program and he attracted 30 to 45 million listeners to his show. He believed that the New Deal was pro business. Father Coughlin founded the National Union for Social Justice, which called for nationalizing all banks. His attacks on the New Deal became anti-Semitic and Fascist. He was later ordered by his superiors in the Catholic Church to stop his broadcasts.
  8. Dr. Francis Townsend was a retired physician from Long Beach, California. He proposed a simple plan for guaranteeing a secure income to senior citizens. His plan was called the Townsend Old Age Revolving Pension Plan and it promised $200.00 a month to all unemployed citizens over the age of 60 on the condition that they spend it in the same month that they received it. He proposed a special tax to fund the Act. He believed that this would stimulate the economy. His plan gave President Roosevelt the idea for a similar plan that became the basis for the Social Security Act.
  9. Roosevelts New Deal Gave Rise to Unions. Two acts supported by the Roosevelt administration were beneficial to organized labor. The National Recovery Act of 1933 and the Wagner Act of 1935 created a change in labor management by legalizing labor unions giving labor the right to organize and bargain collectively. Under Roosevelt, union membership increased from less than 3 million in 1933 to 4.5 million in 1935.
  10. The Fair Labor Standards Act was the final political victory for organized labor in the 1930s and the last major reform of the New Deal. It was passed by Congress in 1938. It established a minimum wage, which at the time was 40 cents an hour. It created a maximum workweek of 40 hours a week with time and a half for overtime. It also place restriction on child labor for individuals under 16 years of age. The passage of this Act was the only major reform of Roosevelts second term.


__________________
Kelby

Date:

Kelby Kim

Great Depression Assignment #21 Part 1 Research Topic

Huey Long was viewed by President Roosevelt as a threat to the New Deal, some people compared him to a dictator at times but he was extremely popular in his own state of Louisiana, where he served as Governor and Senator. He became widely known for his proposal of the Share Our Wealth program. He had aspired to be President of the United States but was killed by an assassin not long after announcing that he would run for the office of President.

Huey Long was born in Winfield, Louisiana on a farm. He attended public schools but he was a high school dropout. He taught himself law and was able to get a law degree after only one year of study at TulaneUniversity. He became the Governor of Louisiana in 1928 and served until his resignation on January 25, 1932. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1930 and although his term began in March 1931, he did not begin his Senate duties until his resignation from his position of Governor. Huey Long was also known as Kingfish a nickname that he gave himself because he said, Im a small fish here in Washington. But Im the Kingfish to the folks down in Louisianahttp://www.ssa.gov/history/hlong1.html.

As Governor of Louisiana, he adopted many reforms to help the poor and to improve the state. He built needed bridges and hospitals and expanded the school system to the rural areas. He made all of these improvements by increasing taxes on all local corporations. He was an enemy of corporate wealth, banks and big business. Although he supported Roosevelt in the 1932 election, he became an enemy of Roosevelt because he believed that the New Deal policies were favoring the corporate group. His critics accused him of being a dictator.

As Governor, he attempted to increase state revenues by placing a tax on the oil industry. The legislature rejected that move and attempts were made to impeach Long claiming that he misappropriated funds and made illegal loans. The attempt to impeach him failed by two votes and then he was accused of bribing some Senators to vote in his favor. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlongH.htm.

Long was opposed to the New Deal because he felt that it favored big business and did not do enough for the worker. When Roosevelt refused to introduce legislation to put ceilings on personal incomes, private fortunes and inheritances he launched his Share Our Wealth Society and shared his ideas with the Senate in February, 1934.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAsharewealth.htm. He used the radio to speak regularly to a national audience. In April 1935, he used the radio to criticize FDR and the New Deal and then told the people about his own program. He told people that after Roosevelt has been in office for three years that we find more people unemployed than at any other time, with houses empty and people hungry. He went on to tell them that this was the reason that he had a solution and that Share Our Wealth societies were forming in every corner of America. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5109/. During his radio appeal to the people Long quoted research that stated, only 2% of the people held 60% of the wealth in the U.S.http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlongH.htm He told people that a change was necessary and he described his program.

The Share Our Wealth program proposed that each family would have a home and the comforts of home up to a value of not less than $5000.00 or a little more than that. Second, that no family would possess more than a wealth of approximately $5 million. Third, that every family should have an income of no less than $2000.00 to $2500.00 and none will have more than one million per year. He also proposed old-age pensions for people 60 and older, by levying taxes upon the excess fortunes and on excess incomes and excessive inheritances. His plan also called for care of the veterans and education for every youth in the land and noted that everyone should have the opportunity to go to college and not have to depend on their parents ability to pay for college. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5109/. His slogan was Every Man a King http://www.ssa.gov/history/hlong1.html.

Huey Long decided to take on Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. He announced his candidacy in August 1935. He was so sure that he would win the election that he wrote a book called My First Days in the White House and in it he even named his cabinet, which included President Roosevelt and President Hoover. http://www.ssa.gov/history/hlong1.html One month after announcing his candidacy Long was shot as he was leaving the governors office at the statehouse in Louisiana. Dr. Carl Weiss the son-in-law of Judge Benjamin Pavy, one of Longs political foes was waiting for Long as he walked in the hall. Weiss had a gun and he aimed it at Long, fired and hit Long in the Abdomen. Longs bodyguards then fired at Weiss killing him instantly. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlongH.htm. Long was taken to the hospital and surgery was performed but he died two days later at the age of 42. According to his sister his last words were Dont let me die I have got so much to do. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlongH.htm

Huey Long was a politician who gained national attention. He believed that government should provide opportunity for everyone. Some of the programs that are in place today, such as social security, veterans benefits and student financial aid were ideas launched by Huey Long. Long was the basis for Robert Penn Warrens Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, All The Kings Men (1946). http://www.answers.com/topic/huey-long.



__________________
Kelby

Date:

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/db0238.htm

Dear D.B.

I am sorry to hear of your difficulties during these troubling times. I hope that this letter finds both of your parents feeling better and that your search for work will be successful. I regret that I am unable to fulfill your request for a loan as I receive many similar appeals on a daily basis.

I have traveled around the country and I have seen many youngsters experiencing the same difficulties as you and I am troubled that I cannot do more to help. As part of the Presidents New Deal, there are some programs that may be helpful in your search for employment. I recommend that you contact the National Youth Administration and the United States Employment Service, Department of Labor, as they may be able to offer some assistance in your search for employment.

Sincerely yours,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

Dear Parents of D.B.

I recently received a letter from your daughter. I was impressed with her caring attitude and the dedication for her family that she exhibited in her letter. I was sorry to hear that you are both not feeling well and I hope that this letter finds you both in better health.

I understand that these are very trying times for many as I have traveled around the Country and seen so many families who are experiences the troubles that your daughter has outlined in her letter.

I am very sorry that I cannot provide the loan of $35.00 to $50.00 that your daughter has requested but I have provided her with a few contacts to assist her in her own search for a job.

Sincerely yours,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/jia0438.htm

Dear J.I.A.

Thank you for your letter and your complimentary words about President Roosevelt. I can see that you are very enthusiastic about a career in acting but I do not think that this is a good time for you to run off to Hollywood. Hollywood is a long way from Rhode Island and girl your age should not be off living on her own in an unfamiliar place. I have met other girls while traveling around this Country who have similar dreams of being on the Silver Screen and I must admit that it does seem like a glamorous life but it is much more difficult that you can probably imagine. My advice is to stay in school and put your acting talent to use in school plays. This would give you the opportunity to perform in front of an audience and more important it would allow you to remain in school to further your education.

I am so sorry to hear about the poor health of your parents and I find it very noble of you to want to earn money to get better health care for your mother. I am certain that you can do as much to help your mother by staying close to home and being with her and assisting her with whatever she needs. I truly believe that both of your parents will find greater comfort with you at home rather than in Hollywood.

I hope that you understand that I am unable to help you with this request. Best wishes for success in school.

Very Truly Yours

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

Dear Parents of J.I.A.

I recently received a letter from your daughter, requesting my assistance to pay her way to Hollywood. Her reason for wanting to go to Hollywood is to work as an actress so that she can make enough money to send her mother to the best Doctors to care for your heart condition. You should be so proud to have such a caring daughter.

I informed your daughter that I am not able to fulfill her request and I told her that I believed that she was very young to be thinking of leaving home to go to an unknown place. I advised her to remain in school in order to further her education because I believe that education is so important.

Best wishes

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

http://newdeal.feri.org/eleanor/ck0334.htm

Dear C.K.

I have traveled around the Country and have met so many young men like you, who are faced with similar difficulties. You should not feel awkward asking for things that you need, if you had not asked your friend for help you would be without all of the equipment needed to try out for the team. I am impressed with your determination and perseverance during these very difficult times. I am happy to hear that you have been able to continue in school and able to purchase needed school supplies.

I am very sorry that I am unable to fulfill your request for a pair of football shoes. I receive many requests for help, but as much as I wish that I could, I am unable to meet everyones request. There is a new program that I think may be helpful to you that I am enthusiastic about and that is the National Youth Administration Program. This program assists young men and women between the ages of 16 and 25, find work so that they may contribute to their family income and stay in school. This may be something that you would benefit from.

Again, I am sorry that I cannot be more helpful with your specific need but I hope that this letter provides some encouragement. Best of luck in school.

Very sincerely yours,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

Dear Parents of C.K.

I recently received a letter from your son. He seems like a fine young man with great spirit and determination. He wrote to me asking for my help in securing a pair of football shoes. I explained to him that I am very sorry but I am unable to fulfill his request, as I receive many requests from other young men and women every day. All I can offer is kind words and encouragement.

I was very happy to hear that is conscientious about his studies and that he elected to buy the needed school supplies over the football shoes. I wish him great success during this school year and in the future. You should be very proud of your son.

Sincerely yours,

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt.



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Film and the Thirties

The origins of film began in the 1860s with machines like the zoetrope and praxinoscope which did little more than show a couple of images in motion. These machines were different from the devices before them which created optical illusions for they moved the images fast enough to create the phenomenon of persistence of vision which makes an image look like its moving. In the 1880s motion picture cameras were developed and allowed for many images to be contained on a single reel which could then be put onto a projector and magnified by light to show. As time went on movies became increasingly popular in the 1900s as produced more by people like Thomas Edison and Georges Melies. Before the late 20s many films were silent usually with dialogue panels in between clips and/or would be accompanied by orchestras playing music to the movie. This would eventually change due to Edisons invention of the Kinetophone, which failed commercially for him, and later the Vitaphone introduced by Warner Bros.

Then came the 30s which with the 40s became to be known as The Golden Age of Hollywood. The Movie Theaters were the place to go in the 20s and especially in the 30s with the commercial introduction of sound as an estimated 60 to 90 million Americans went to the movies every week. As the Great Depression hit movie attendance fell a little bit until 1934 were it started to pick up again as the country began moving out of the depression. During this time Hollywood began making more movies which were very popular as they were a way for the people of the U.S. to entertain themselves for a couple of hours for relatively little money. Many people went to movies for they could not do much else since they had less money from either wage cuts or having no job at all and had to find cheap ways of entreating themselves for a couple of hours; double features were created to use up more time. They went to movies to escape from their everyday troubles and to live in a fantasy world for a while and in doing so began to idolize and emulate the actors. The film industry created a revival of many genres with the addition of sound such as gangster films, musicals, newspaper-reporting films aka news reels, social-realism films, lighthearted screwball comedies, westerns and horror. Many actors became very famous during this era such as James Cagney in Public Enemy, Greta Garbo in Anna Christie, The Marx Bros. in Animal Cracker, Mae West in Im No Angel, Jean Harlow in Hells Angels, Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert in It Happened One Night, Shirley Temple in Little Miss Marker, Cesar Romero in The Devil is a Woman, Gary Cooper in Mr. Deeds Goes to Town, Humphrey Bogart in The Petrified Forest, Katharine Hepburn in Bringing up Baby, and the animated Mickey Mouse in The Band Concert. Many people, more so kids, liked to imitate these actors and idolized them, for example blonde hair became popular because of the sexy Mae West and Jean Harlow, girls would try and talk like Greta Garbo, and men would try and act like Clark Gable. As the Film industry hit a slump during the depression part of the WPA called the FTP, Federal Theatre Project, was implemented to employ out-of-work writers, directors, and artists, to entertain poor families, and to create relevant art. However these plays and movies were uncensored at the beginning and contained many progressive and left-wing themes highlighting hot button issues like farm policy and the Tennessee Valley Authority which created much criticism from the U.S. Congress and was eventually, in 1939, cancelled. Other problems arising in the area of movies, due to public pressure and mainly from the Catholic Church, were combated by the MPPDA, Motion Picture Production Code Administration, which outlined what was and wasnt acceptable in movies such as not allowing anything that promoted immorality or alcoholism; this became known as Hays Code. Howard Hawks film Scarface was one such movie that was targeted for its violation of the code as it displayed violence, sexual innuendo, and a twisted ending where evil triumphs. Later the PCA, Production Code Administration, was created and made an amendment to the Production Code which obligated all movies to obtain one of its seals of approval or face a fine of $25,000 and the MPPDA agreed not to release any film that did not have one. The Catholic Curch took another step to make sure it was enforced by creating the Legion of Decency which would boycott any film that did not have the sticker. Custom laws were being used to prevent foreign films from entering the U.S. and the first case of this was with a Czechoslovakian film called Ecstasy (1933) which contained sexually explicit material; this decision was upheld by the U.S. Department of Treasury. Apart from this actors began organizing and one such example was the Motion Picture Democratic Committee which was meant to support the Democratic Party. Last but not least, some of the most famous movies ever came out of this decade and became classics including Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of Oz which were done expensively with the new system of Technicolor.

Sources

Dirks, Tim. "Film History of the 1930s." Film History by Decade. 2006. 24 Feb 2008 <http://www.filmsite.org/30sintro.html>.

Dirks, Tim. "Timeline of Influential Milestones and Important Turning Points in Film History - 1930s." Film History by Decade. 2006. 24 Feb 2008 <http://www.filmsite.org/milestones1930s.html>.

Various. "Film." Wikipedia. 17 February 2008. 25 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film>.

Various. "History of Film." Wikipedia. 25 February 2008. 25 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_film>.

Mills, Michael. "1930s." Palace: Classic Films. 2008. moderntimes. 25 Feb 2008 <http://www.moderntimes.com/palace/30.html>.

Various. "Federal Theatre Project." Wikipedia. 10 February 2008. 25 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Theatre_Project>.



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Kelby wrote:

Kelby Kim

Great Depression Assignment #21 Part 1 Research Topic

Huey Long


I found Kelby's essay to be very informative on the life and achievements of Huey Long. From what I read on his proposals for the Share Our Wealth program i'm surprised that, either he wasn't or kelby didn't mention it, he wasn't accused of being a communist or a socialist and that he became so popular with such a plan very fast despite creating opposition from corporate America at the time.

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above.gif This was my post By the Way. Don't know why it didn't my name in the first place but oh well now you know

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Part II

Emma Tiller:

I am a Negro woman living in western Texas during the Great Depression. My husband and I are sharecroppers and last year we had to give the landowner our entire crop to pay our lease. I have, however, lived through worse conditions as a child, when we didnt have the services that Mr. Roosevelt is offering today. There are a lot more people worse off than my family, because I could find work in private homes where they give us old clothes and shoes.

One day the government gave us slips so we can go and get some food. There were only a few Negroes in line, and we didnt get waited on for days. When someone finally did wait on us, they gave us rotten and spoiled meat. One day it changed though, these three white men came into the place with shotguns, and demanded them to serve everyone in line and to make sure the food was decent. Sometimes people would say they werent going to come back to the place because they had jobs now so they did all they could to make sure they didnt.

Roosevelts ideas were sometimes bad though, because he made us get rid of a lot of our cotton crop and he killed a lot of cattle. I didnt like the way the killed the cattle, because they seemed almost human. One day it was so bad that I just ran back up to my house and cried.

Sharecropping

Stock Market Crash

WPA

Farm Subsidies

Cattle Slaughters

Racism: When the Negroes stood in line for food, those distributing it gave us rotten meat.

Gender: As a woman, I am not able to always be involved in many of the things that came about after the Depression.

Economic Power: As a sharecropper I dont have any sort of economic power. I have to try and make a living off of land that I can never seem to pay off.

Equality: As the only Negroes in line, we got rotten food instead of decent food like the whites.



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I really liked Dan's essay on Movies during the 1930's. I was really surprised to know that the begginings of movies began as early as 1860's. I thought that they were started in the 1920's when they were really popular.



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PART II (MAD LATE, but more to come in the next two days, k?)


Max Naiman

I was a lawyer in my late 20s and early thirties in the 1930s. In my youth I had a really interesting life working as a farmer as I traveled a lot to the western states and did my part by working on the engines of the train when it got to the station. During my journeying I had met very interesting people, the wobblies, and learned basic facts of life and how to survive when I lived in the jungles. I was all good and fun until it got time to be paid where I usually got beat for my money or got stiffed and I couldnt defend myself without a lawyer, but whod want to represent me, a lowly teen worker. This is when I got the resolve to go to law school and become one of those Good Samaritan lawyers who would help those lowly people. When I graduated I took on many jobs and my clients taught me many things as I waited usually many hours for the courts to let us in. This was one of the many rewarding parts of my job. In those days a whole bunch of the cases I handled were about evictions, many people were victims of the system, but there were unemployment councils, the Robin Hoods of those days, to help them out by putting their house back together with all their displaced furniture. In some bad situations I had to step in and defend the people who had fought back against the sheriffs, and who rightfully did so out of necessity, and I would always try to get a jury trial because many of the judges could not be trusted in a bench trial. And I would always get many genuine and heartfelt thanks after I had won the case for them, which was the best part of the job for me, seeing such happy and grateful faces. All throughout my care I did my best not to discriminate against my clients when defending them, never really mattered to me who they were, I just knew they were in a bind and needed defendin. And so I defended five people who were communists, and who were wrongly jailed, and got them out using the most holy writ of habeus corpus to get them out. I was not paid for cases like these during my first four years. I borrowed a lot, and made money here and there on different cases, if I was lucky. Many times I had to sleep outside with nothin but a blanket and the stars. Nowadays people are less focused on helping other people and more on themselves.

Stock Market Crash/Relief Lines When the Stock Market crashed many banks closed and many people lost their money in investments, which led to many foreclosures and evictions. I had to handle many cases of evictions and heard many stories from the people I defended, giving me a greater perspective of the people facing the worst of the Depression. From this I also saw many people stand in relief lines and how some were arrested when they began to get rowdy and in=impatient when they werent getting what they needed when they needed it.

Movies I too went to see movies when I could for fun and leanred a thing or two from them. Like one time I was passing by the Director of Relief, who did not care for me much AT ALL, and he made a rude antagonizing remark which I ignored until he grabbed me, turned me around, and hit me and I retaliated quickly with three direct punches, like I learned from the movie Call of the Wild, because one must swiftly take down a man of his large stature.

Labor Unions During my career I also defended many labor leaders who were arrested and beaten by the police. Many were communists. I cared little what their political affiliation was, I cared more about delivering justice.

Memorial Day Massacre of 1937 I had a hint of what the mood of the police was the day before this event as I could tell they did not like protestors at all.

Spanish Civil War I had many people to deal with, going over their wills and insurance policies when they signed up as volunteers for the Lincoln Brigade to go over and help the Spanish Republican forces, since the U.S. would not go officially. One of them was a member of the International Labor Defense like myself and I got letters from him until one day when he died, killed by a sniper. I was sad to hear this.

Justice I have been since my youth very devoted to serving and maintaining justice in a time when desperation made many people take drastic or otherwise unnecessary actions. When people were evicted or were beat by the police I felt compelled to get a fair trial for them and help them through their hardship as best I could.

Politics While I did not really care about politics I did support the many changes, especially the Social Security Act, that Roosevelt and his administration were putting for, reflecting on it now because it has done a lot of good. Again even though I did support these ideas, politics did not influence my career as I did not mind defending a communist.

Rights Of course as a defense lawyer it is my job to protect the rights of my clients, and I did so with no regrets. For instance when I was sent to Washington i made sure my clients got back their rights when I enforce the writ of habeus corpus for they were jailed without being able to communicate to anyone.

Equality I, hopefully and not to my knowledge, ever discriminated when taking a client and always fought hard for them when they struggled. I too had once been in their situation and was doing what I felt led to do. During these times, especially these times, I felt it necessary to help all in need and that feeling was further emphasized after I won a case for someone and they graciously thanked me.



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PART I

1) Herbert Hoover:
Herbert Hoover was the president during the first half of the Great Depression. Many people believed that the progression of the depression could be blamed on Herbert Hoovers inability to deal with the dramatic decline in the nations wealth. To mock him many of the inhabitants of shantytowns called them Hoovervilles.

2) Black Tuesday:
Black Tuesday is the name given to October 29, 1929. On that day Wall Street crashed and stocks plummeted. Millions of people lost their entire life savings when banks were forced to close after all of the money they had was gone.

3) Douglas McArthur:
Douglas McArthur was the commander who was given the orders, by Herbert Hoover, to burn all of the Bonus Army shacks outside of the White House in Washington D.C. The men and women in the camp had been soldiers or nurses of the First World War and their pensions had been revoked due to the Depression. Herbert Hoover told Mc Arthur to disband them and he and his forces used tanks, tear gas, guns, etc. to do this.

4) Franklin D. Roosevelt:
Franklin Roosevelt took over the presidency for the second half of the Great Depression. He however had many more creative ideas and visions than Herbert Hoover did and many of his plans involved government intervention rather than tax cuts or spending.

5) Twenty-First Amendment:
The Twenty-First Amendment was passed in December, 1933 and it repealed the Eighteenth Amendment which had made alcohol illegal. The Eighteenth Amendment had led to many illegal actions and many believe it had led to the growing power of the Mafia through speak-easies and bootlegging. With the repeal there was no need for the illegal activity.

6) Agricultural Adjustment Act [AAA]:
The Agricultural Adjustment Act, or AAA, was passed by Congress in 1933 and its main goal was to help stabilize the farm economy through price regulation and subsidization. At this time the government actually paid people not to farm on their land so that there wouldnt be an overproduction of food.

7) Civilian Conservation Corps [CCC]:
The Civilian Conservation Corps, or CCC, was one of the most influential and successful relief programs. It not only employed countless young people but those young adults were able to also conserve resources and protect wildlife in many areas. They mainly worked on forest conservation, and flood control projects.

8) Works Progress Administration [WPA]:
The Works Progress Administration, or WPA, was a national relief project which directly offered employment to millions of people. They supported many different people whether it not only be factory jobs, or jobs working on government building projects, but also working with artists on murals, and playwrights.

9) Fair Labor Standards Act [FLSA]:
Fair Labor Standards Act, or FLSA, worked on equal rights and protections for workers. They established a maximum number of hours an employee may work a week, which was 40 hours. They also established a minimum wage at 40 cents an hour, which was a lot for the time especially because of the economic turmoil. However this began solely for industries which dealt with interstate commerce.

10) Leisure:
Due to the new shorter work week, and higher wages, people had more time and more money to spend on leisure items, such as radios or family outings. Also board games and seeing sporting events became highly popular at the time. Movies, books, and even pinball machines became so popular that critics were actually considering this new age as a problem.

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PART II !!!!! AHHHHHHH......em. Excuse me


Louis Banks

I was born in 1915 and lived in a town called McGehee, Arkansas on a cotton farm where my father eventually worked himself to death and a white man came and drove a tractor around. I was black. When I was a little boy and came to Chicago I used to fight for money, a prize-fighter, until I was fourteen when I became a vagabond. Then I worked on the Great Lakes as a chef and earned $41.50 a month and dreamed of being a great chef one day, but the 1930s were tougher than I was. I had to work extremely hard every day working from five to seven doing all the work. Eventually I left and became a hobo again and started to travel around looking for a job being careful where I went because people back then would kill you for fifty cents and others would kill themselves because they had nothing. Back then it didnt matter if you were black or white because everybody was poor but it didnt help being black because the white guys always got the jobs over the blacks. I use to ride the trains around all over the country looking for jobs with other hobos. When I wasnt on the train I usually slept in the jungle with the other hobos because we were all friendly enough to group together for a while and make a camp and eat. None of the hobos had hardly any family so we stuck together for a while until we found jobs and left each other. Back on the train many hobos would die by either falling off the train or getting shot off by ruthless authorities. Many times I went to jail for being a vagabond and was jailed for thirty to ninety days at a time, although I was only suppose to get five or ten days. They did this because it was free labor and made me and others pick cotton or fruits all day long everyday. I was in jail all other the country and it was the same everywhere I went. Every time I mentioned o was a vagabond to someone, it was off to the big house for me. In those days when the men left to find jobs they left what family they had to help pay for them. I was worried about supporting my mother so I would just send her a letter of how good I was doing, being in Los Angeles and all and I knew she would be proud that I had gotten that far. I never included a picture because I didnt want to show my true self to her. But anyways I had many jobs, like fifteen or twenty, and they were always hard as hell, like throwing a ball one way and then running to go catch it yourself, and the worst part was that the white chefs would get twice as much as me for doing less work. The poor had it hard and the rich were enjoying themselves. Then my next job was as a bellhop for a hotel in Chicago during the Worlds Fair, though not at one of the exclusive hotels where all the white boys got hired. Times and jobs were better after the Worlds Fair in 35 where people like me could get jobs like dishwashin and porters. Then I got a job on the WPA for $27.50 a month and this was good for many people for it made you feel useful again, even rich. You could now buy some new clothes for yourself but it was still a struggle raising my kids during the Depression, they had to have hand-me-downs. Everyone, at least that I met, throughout most of the Depression was evil to each other because they had nothing and if you or someone else did then their was a target on your back. I knew that at anytime I could get killed. I was actually glad that war came because it provided me with a steady job, security, and pride. I was more afraid of starving to death or getting killed on a train than a rifle and I knew I had a gang to protect me, my friends, the soldiers.

Worlds Fair While I myself have not expeience the expos I did feel greatful for them attracting many people for a short time which provided me with an opportunity to work and make money, especially for a black man like me.

WPA- When the WPA was set up again like the fairs it provided me with a jobs, but for much longer than the fairs, and allowed me to feel good about working again. It made me feel useful once again and a whole lot wealthier than what I had been.

WWII When World War 2 came around I was happy for myself because I knew there would be a job for me in the army. A very steady and possibly permanent job. I didnt so much care about fighting as much as actually working and for something I was deeply proud of, fighting for my country.

Patriotism I felt a great sense of patriotism when WWII rolled around as I was serving my country who gave me a job in its army and it gave me a group to belong to, one that would be my friend and protect me, unlike the hobos I traveled around with who would kill me if I had anything good.

Racism I was a victim of racism for most of my life. Whenever I went to get a job, if a white man was there, he would get is solely for the fact that he was white. This fact hurt me. If me and another white man had the same job, I would get paid less. If I was arrested I would get a whole lot of time while if a white man did the same thing he would only get a couple of days.

Equality There wasnt much equality in the Depression era for whites always had the advantage in basically everything. However when no one had a job and was poor, then all of us hobos and homeless were equal. WE all traveled around on trains and slept in the jungle together, under the stars.

Justice There wasnt much justice for me, especially when I got arrested. Since I am black I always got treated worse than the white man, always had to do the more demeaning and menial tasks and jobs.



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FIN


Ed Paulsen

I just graduated High School when the Depression hit but ever since I was fourteen I had been hitching rides on freight trains traveling to and fro. I always returned though, to my home in South Dakota where my sister and her husband had a little farm which was like a retreat to me. When I got outta high school I moved to different cities to get a job. I picked apples in Washington, in Los Angeles I hustled sheets, and practically everywhere along the West coast I worked in road gangs. When we, my brothers and I, got to the cities we didnt know how to live there being from a small town you never heard of and it was terrifying at first. We didnt know how to join a breadline or nothing, but then again we didnt really want to, our expectations were too high at the time. We wanted to live middle-class lives, which we thought was a do-able goal, yet we had not a middle-class income. By 1931 we ended up in San Francisco looking for jobs at a Standard Oil Service Station but for that you needed at least a college education. While there I would usually get up at five in the morning everyday and go to the waterfront to see if I could get a job, being a big strong kid I had hope, but there were like a thousand men there as well and fought over the three or four jobs available like a pack of wild dogs. At around eleven everyone gave up and headed out. I drifted up to Skid Row afterwards and l saw thousands of men just standing there, some of them were weirdos making crazy speeches until the real leaders showed up and had us march to the town hall we stood as a group and demanded the simplest things like shelter, work, and food and I though all of this was courageous despite the fact that everyone knew society wouldnt grant us these things. Soon the cops, usually on horseback, would show up and break up the crowd, sometimes it came to killing when some resisted, and despite all of us having a built-in losing complex most of us still had hope and whenever a rumor of a job or a project came up thousands would show up. And although we never got jobs and always went to try and get one everyday, we werent angry, but more like bewildered we wanted jobs not revolution and we just couldnt understand not having a job; most of the men in the crowd were fathers and had held jobs before and only wanted to have a job again, not to break down society. As I went from place to place looking for jobs I always seemed to meet or hear about the American Legion, the bane of my existence ever since high school. They were merchants, storekeepers, landowners, etc and they had it good. They were the enemies of the homeless, the drifters, the crowd of the hungry and they would beat people till they dispersed; they usually were with the police but were more violent. So as I traveled from Los Angeles to Kansas City to Nebraska I, like many other travelers grabbing a free ride, were kicked off the train until we got to Omaha where the police took us to a Transient Camp. Here we had food, shelter, clothing, and baths; it was like heaven to many of us. The next day we all met with a social worker where we got jobs; me and my brothers got into the NYA, which was my salvation. It was because in those days almost everybody stole and I could just have been as easily shipped off to Sing Sing but I got this instead. Drifters had a coyote mentality where they would do what they had to to survive. We were coyotes in the Thirties, the jobless.

National Youth Administration - This program was awesome because it gave me a steady job that stopped me from having to steal and I got decent money from it.

Upton Sinclair While I was in L.A. I saw Upton Sinclair running for office and I found his argument a valid one, appealing to me immensely. He was relating the resources not being used, for example the government killing little pigs, to the unemployed and it made sense that the hungry and unemployed should eat this instead of destroying it.

National Recovery Administration People talked about this organization price-fixing and other things and to me it was very strange, I didnt understand it nor did I care, didnt mean a damn thing to me.

Stock Market Crash - In a backwater town like mine nobody heard of or even gave a damn about the stock market crash in 29, nobody invested stock in anything.

Racism I saw racism everywhere but blacks were grouped together with the homeless and jobless to make a bigger crowd when marching to town hall to demand things. One example is when I went to a small burger joint and two trollops walk in, one Mexican and one black. The owner demanded that the black lady leave because he wouldnt serve a Negro and the Mexican lady just ordered two hamburgers and shared the other with the black lady. This infuriated the owner and when he came around from the counter I tripped him and we all jetted.

Justice I did not find justice in the American Legion. I just saw them as people who beat up less fortunate people just because they were their. This is not justice, it is not right. I hated them.

Politics This was one area I had no understanding of and I didnt care that I didnt know much about it. I just thought it was all well and good when Roosevelt put forth those programs that got me a job.

Equality To me it seemed that everyone should have a job but I knew that wouldnt happen because there were too few jobs for the multitude of men applying for them.



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Part I:

10 facts
1. More than 4 million Americans were out of work in 1930, and by 1932 the number increased to 12 million.
2. The marriage rate, divorce rate, and the birth rate, all dropped during the decade.
3. In May 1931, the leading Austrian bank collapsed, the world was following the United States going into depressions.
4. The General Electric stock went from selling 396 stocks in 1929 to going down to 34 in 1932.
5. By 1932 almost one out of every four American was out of work and almost half of industry had come down to a halt.
6. Many farmers didnt have enough money to buy the goods that they made. Prices didnt go down during this Depression.
7. During the 1920s, over 7,000 banks had failed.
8. Also during this time, America and Europe hardly traded with one another had which affected both countries in a great way.
9. Not all everyone was affected by the Depression. William Danforth and Joseph Kennedy were two men who even during the Depression were making millions by slowly selling their stocks.
10. Roosevelt talked to the public through the radio, these were called fireside chats.

Research on the Dust Bowl.

The dust bowl was a chain of dust storms over the central part of the United States. The dust bowl occurred over a period of time between 1931 to 1939. These dust storms were caused by bad farming techniques. When removing the grass during plowing the soil dried out during the drought and the soil turned to dust and it blew eastwards. The drought was at its peak between 1934 to 1936. Once in the air dust formed large black clouds, causing day to look like night. The clouds traveled soil as far as Chicago and much of it flew into the Atlantic Ocean. Over 500,000 Americans who lived in or the surrounding areas of the Great Plains migrated west in hope for work. After the dust bowl farmers were smarter and aware of the consequences of poor farming. People now soil conservation.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dust_Bowl

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Part 2
Doc Graham

My name is Doc Graham, I am the son of a missionary and an unsuccessful gambler. I did not come from a wealthy family. My I have four brothers. All of us have been in jail at one time or another. I have been apart of gangs, and mobs. Ive tried to make money in any way possible. Not always legally. If I was really desperate and low on cash I would box. I would also like to let it be known that FDR did nothing to save our country, things would have gotten better even without him. He was a no good crook and he was just hurting the innocent people who actually trusted him, I on the other hand voted against him four times. He was just not fit to serve me and he had to be one of the most crooked politicians to ever hold office in this country.
People today could really learn from my generation. We fought through the struggle. We arent like spoiled kids these days who take everything for granted. From sitting on the computer to playing video games, they dont know a hard day of work. Maybe if they learned what people like myself did just to get by they would have a different outlook on life.
Larry Van DusenMy name is Larry Van Dusen and I am 55 years old. For most of my life I was involved in labor unions, organizing them mostly. I was also a social worker in Kansas City in the early thirties. Organizing unemployed councils, participating in strikes, and getting arrested could be considered the highlights of my life. I was arrested many times for organizing. Spending time in jail wasnt great, especially in the heat. I would get rashes every once in a while, that itched a lot it was quite a nuisance. I make sure I stay shaven for if I get arrested I will avoid this experience. Cells were also packed; sometimes there were six to eight people in one cell. The jails were also brutal, especially for blacks. There was even this black man who died in the cell next to mine, because the officers refused to send him medical attention after he was beat up by other inmates. I was one of six. I was close to my dad. I grew up rather poor. My dad struggled to keep a job. It was nice when he came with a check, and bad when he carried his toolbox home with him over his shoulder. In my own opinion the unemployed councils helped the start of the New Deal legislation. My dad and I argued about topics such as these which often brought tension between us. I left my home when I was 19. When I returned much later after the depression and the war. My house was different. It changed dramatically. My parents still werent that wealthy. I ate with them. I even had seconds, for when I was child things were tight and everyone was allowed only one serving. Things were much more relaxed, and my parents seemed happier. The depression caused everyone pain, and I hope children of the future will not have to experience what I did.

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Part 1

10 Statistics, Individuals, Facts, and Events

Statistic: By 1932, at least one of every four American breadwinners was out of work, and industrial production was at a halt.

Individual: Herbert Hoover was the President of the United States at the time of the first half of the Depression. Many people blamed the Depression on him.

Fact: Farmers were the first group to suffer from the depression.

Event: The Dust Bowl occurred between 1932 and 1939 in Oklahoma where dust covered everything and got into houses and cars. It blacked out the sun at times and got into peoples eyes, ears, mouth, and nose along with their respiratory tract. Many people died from dust pneumonia. This natural disaster damaged over 10,000 homes and 9 million acres of farmland before it was over.

Statistic: During the New Deal era, the wealthiest two fifths of Americas population got 72.6% of the wealth that was being distributed throughout the country. The middle one fifth got 14.1% of the wealth and poorest two fifths got 13.3%. These statistics show that even though the president was trying to help out the poor as well as the wealthy, much of the wealth really wasnt distributed among the lower classes.

Individual: Franklin D. Roosevelt was the President of the United States towards the end of the Depression and into the first World War. He came up with the New Deal Program as a way to help the countrys economy up and running again.

Fact: The Workers Progress Administration (WPA) was one of the early attempts to attack the unemployment problem in the United States during the Depression. They helped writers, artists, musicians, and actors get jobs so they could get back on their feet.

Event: The Scottsboro Case was a court case were 2 young white women accused nine black men of raping them while they were hitching a ride in Scottsboro, Alabama. An all white jury sentenced the nine men to death.

Statistic: In the Civilian Conservation Corps, out of 3 million participants, only 8,000 of them were women.

Fact: The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) helped to restore forests, plants, and animals while giving people jobs that were destitute.

I am going to research The Scottsboro Case



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Annifreed Sinjour


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Part 1 (continued)

The Scottsboro Case

The Scottsboro Case was a good example of the racism and discrimination that took place during the Great Depression. On March 25, 1931, in Scottsboro, Alabama, two white women accused nine black men of raping them when the hitched a ride with them. An all white jury found them guilty and sentenced the nine black men to death. Two years later in 1933, The U.S. Supreme Court called for another trial of these men. There was never any evidence showing that the rapes had ever occurred. Five of the young men were convicted and given long prison terms instead. The other four had their charges dropped against them in 1937. Four of the five in jail were paroled in 1946 and the fifth one fled to Michigan. This case showed the ugly side of racism in the courts during the1930s in the United States.

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Annifreed Sinjour
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grades updated 4.1.08

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Part 2

Cesar Chaves, John Beecher, and Robin Langston

Cesar Chaves

I am 41 years old and the current President of the United Farm Workers of America (UFWA). I help agricultural workers whom have been excluded from the New Deal benefits. My family and I had to move out of our house at age 6 because the bank foreclosed our house. We moved to California and became migratory workers. Basically we followed the crops as they said. Wherever there was a good amount of crops is where we went. The foreclosure of our home had a huge impact on my father especially. He never gave up hope that one day he would own his own land. This never ended up happening. Employers took us advantage of us many times. Often they didnt pay us our full wages for the work that we did. But we didnt complain because at least we were getting paid. We were also discriminated against because we were Mexican. I often missed school because we constantly were on the move, following the crops. I remember I transferred schools about 37 times due to our constant migration.

John Beecher

I am a poet but I remember before becoming a poet, I had many other professions. I was the great-grandnephew of abolitionists Henry Ward Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe. My father was the top executive of the U.S. Steel Corporation and lost a lot of money during the 1929 stock market crash. He went into a depression and I remember my family members and I feared he was going to commit suicide. One of his close friends had just jumped out of a 14-story window to his death due to the crash. In my 20s I began to work in a steel mill in Ainsley, Alabama, which was a suburb outside of Birmingham. I left my job eventually at the mills to teach at the University of Wisconsin. After that I worked as a volunteer social worker and a New Deal administrator during the Depression. I remember talking to people right after the election of President Roosevelt and they felt that he was the answer and that he would get them out of this Depression. I also worked in the Migratory Labor Program were we built hospitals for blacks when they werent accepted anywhere else and we helped them get along in life.

Robin Langston

I am a 43-year-old social worker by day and jazz musician by night. I remember during the Depression, my parents could pay the $1 electric bill so our electricity was shut off. We started using a lot of kerosene to light things after that. I lived in Hot Springs, Arkansas until I was 17. My father opened up a restaurant to make money; I started washing dishes at 5. Schools were segregated and at my school along with many other schools, none of the teachers had their bachelors degree. Racism was very apparent during this time period. My family was black and black and white families both lived in Hot Springs but were still segregated. In my personal opinion I feel that another Depression could happen in this country.


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